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Global Dietary and Herbal Supplement Use during COVID-19—A Scoping Review

Arora et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15030771
Feb 2023  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.00000064 from 45 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Review of 14 global studies showing that the most frequently used dietary supplements during COVID-19 were vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc, and multivitamins. The most common reason was for improved immune system functioning or reduced COVID-19 risk. Authors note that participants who have attained higher education levels were more likely to use supplements during COVID-19.
Currently there are 122 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [28‑43%], 19% lower ventilation [-3‑36%], 45% lower ICU admission [28‑58%], 19% lower hospitalization [9‑29%], and 17% fewer cases [9‑24%].
Currently there are 45 zinc treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 30% lower mortality [12‑44%], 40% lower ventilation [2‑63%], 24% lower ICU admission [-5‑46%], 20% lower hospitalization [4‑34%], and 22% fewer cases [-10‑45%].
Currently there are 71 vitamin C for COVID-19 studies, showing 19% lower mortality [9‑27%], 9% lower ventilation [-12‑27%], 14% lower ICU admission [3‑24%], 19% lower hospitalization [6‑30%], and 3% fewer cases [-16‑19%].
Reviews covering zinc for COVID-19 include1-10.
Review covers vitamin D, vitamin C, and zinc.
Arora et al., 2 Feb 2023, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact: rahel.mathews@msstate.edu (corresponding author).
This PaperZincAll
Global Dietary and Herbal Supplement Use during COVID-19—A Scoping Review
Ishaan Arora, Shecoya White, Rahel Mathews
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15030771
During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the lack of cure and the intensity of the global spread raised a common awareness of health. The aim of this scoping review is to summarize dietary supplement use globally during first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search was conducted in December 2021 following PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, ERIC, and Scopus databases were searched, and 956 results were screened for eligibility. Fourteen cross-sectional studies from 11 countries and 3 continents were examined. All studies were large population surveys investigating healthy eating and supplement use during COVID-19. Vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc and multivitamins were the most widely reported, as well as natural/herbal products such as ginger and honey. The most common reason cited for supplements use was to strengthen immune system and to prevent infection of COVID-19. These studies reported that populations are relying on healthcare providers, family, friends, and social media to learn about supplement use. Future studies on the treatment of COVID-19 should include more evidence for supplement use.
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Suppl.'}, { 'key': 'ref_8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2021-6-2', 'DOI': '10.7573/dic.2021-6-2', 'article-title': 'Vitamins, supplements and COVID-19: A review of currently available ' 'evidence', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Speakman', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Drugs Context'}, { 'key': 'ref_9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Subedi, L., Tchen, S., Gaire, B.P., Hu, B., and Hu, K. (2021). ' 'Adjunctive nutraceutical therapies for COVID-19. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 22.', 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms22041963'}, { 'key': 'ref_10', 'unstructured': 'insightSLICE (2022, April 12). Global Immune Health Supplements ' 'Market—Global Market Share, Trends, Analysis and Forecasts, 2023—2032. ' 'Available online: ' 'https://www.insightslice.com/immune-health-supplements-market.'}, { 'key': 'ref_11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Alfawaz, H.A., Khan, N., Aljumah, G.A., Hussain, S.D., and Al-Daghri, ' 'N.M. (2021). 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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