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Influence of zinc deficiency and supplementation on NK cell cytotoxicity

Rolles et al., Journal of Functional Foods, doi:10.1016/j.jff.2018.07.027
Sep 2018  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 17 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
In Vitro study showing improved natural killer (NK) cell function with zinc.
Graydon showed that a lower frequency of natural killer cells was associated with symptomatic COVID-19 infection.
10 preclinical studies support the efficacy of zinc for COVID-19:
Rolles et al., 30 Sep 2018, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact: lrink@ukaachen.de.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperZincAll
Influence of zinc deficiency and supplementation on NK cell cytotoxicity
Benjamin Rolles, Martina Maywald, Lothar Rink
Journal of Functional Foods, doi:10.1016/j.jff.2018.07.027
Knowledge about the role of zinc on natural killer (NK) cell activity and function is limited and needs further instigation. Hence, in this study, the influence of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, zinc, and the zinc-chelator N,N,N′,N′tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) on the human NK cell line (YTS cell line) and primary NK cells were examined. We mainly focused on NK cell killing activity by using the K562 cell line as target cells. We uncovered a significantly increased NK cell killing activity due to 1 h zinc pre-incubation and contact to zinc-rich medium in physiological concentrations. Moreover, co-stimulation of zinc and IL-2 provoked an additive increase in NK cell killing activity. In contrast, zinc deficiency induced by 1 h TPEN pre-incubation significantly decreased the killing activity of primary NK cells. Temporary elevated intracellular zinc levels in target cells act contrary to the destruction by NK cells.
Conflict of Interests The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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