Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All zinc studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchZincZinc (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Coordination chemistry suggests that independently observed benefits of metformin and Zn2+ against COVID-19 are not independent

Lockwood, T., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5
Apr 2024  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
In Silico analysis suggesting potential benefits of metformin and zinc for COVID-19. Author proposes that metformin can form a complex with zinc ions, increasing zinc bioavailability, and that the metformin-zinc complex may slow viral multiplication, viral invasion, and pathogenic host inflammation by inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, papain-like protease, and various host proteases responsive to zinc, allowing time for immunity to clear the infection.
Study covers metformin and zinc.
Lockwood et al., 5 Apr 2024, peer-reviewed, 1 author. Contact: thomas.lockwood@wright.edu.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperZincAll
Coordination chemistry suggests that independently observed benefits of metformin and Zn2+ against COVID-19 are not independent
Thomas D Lockwood
BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5
Independent trials indicate that either oral Zn 2+ or metformin can separately improve COVID-19 outcomes by approximately 40%. Coordination chemistry predicts a mechanistic relationship and therapeutic synergy. Zn 2+ deficit is a known risk factor for both COVID-19 and non-infectious inflammation. Most dietary Zn 2+ is not absorbed. Metformin is a naked ligand that presumably increases intestinal Zn 2+ bioavailability and active absorption by cation transporters known to transport metformin. Intracellular Zn 2+ provides a natural buffer of many protease reactions; the variable "set point" is determined by Zn 2+ regulation or availability. A Zn 2+ -interactive protease network is suggested here. The two viral cysteine proteases are therapeutic targets against COVID-19. Viral and many host proteases are submaximally inhibited by exchangeable cell Zn 2+ . Inhibition of cysteine proteases can improve COVID-19 outcomes and non-infectious inflammation. Metformin reportedly enhances the natural moderating effect of Zn 2+ on bioassayed proteome degradation. Firstly, the dissociable metformin-Zn 2+ complex could be actively transported by intestinal cation transporters; thereby creating artificial pathways of absorption and increased body Zn 2+ content. Secondly, metformin Zn 2+ coordination can create a non-natural protease inhibitor independent of cell Zn 2+ content. Moderation of peptidolytic reactions by either or both mechanisms could slow (a) viral multiplication (b) viral invasion and (c) the pathogenic host inflammatory response. These combined actions could allow development of acquired immunity to clear the infection before life-threatening inflammation. Nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid®) opposes COVID-19 by selective inhibition the viral main protease by a Zn 2+ -independent mechanism. Pending safety evaluation, predictable synergistic benefits of metformin and Zn 2+ , and perhaps metformin/Zn 2+ /Paxlovid® co-administration should be investigated.
Author contributions T.D.L. wrote the manuscript Declarations Conflict of interest There are no conflicting interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
References
Abdallah, Mhalla, Trabelsi, Sekma, Youssef et al., Twice-daily oral zinc in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a randomized double-blind controlled trial, Clin Infect Dis
Adeghate, Eid, Singh, Mechanisms of COVID-19-induced heart failure: a short review, Heart Fail Rev
Aggett, Delves, Harries, Bangham, The possible role of diodoquin as a zinc ionophore in the treatment of acrodermatitis enteropathica, Biochem Biophys Res Commun
Ahmad, Transition metal complexes as proteasome inhibitors for cancer treatment, Inorganica Chim Acta
Akhmerov, Marbán, COVID-19 and the heart, Circ Res
Ala, Ala, Metformin for cardiovascular protection, inflammatory bowel disease, osteoporosis, periodontitis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, neurodegeneration, cancer, inflammation and senescence: what is next?, ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci
Albert, Mode of action of isoniazid, Nature
Aliákhan, Kumaráverma, Azeemákhan, Kumarámohapatra, Kumaránanda, Zinc 2+ ion inhibits SARS-CoV-2 main protease and viral replication in vitro, Chem Commun
Almasaud, Chalabi, Arfaj, Qarni, Alkroud et al., Association of serum zinc and inflammatory markers with the severity of COVID-19 infection in adult patients, Nutrients
Aoki, Iwaida, Hanamoto, Shiro, Kimura, Guanidine is a Zn 2+ -binding ligand at neutral pH in aqueous solution, J Am Chem Soc
Bal, Sokołowska, Kurowska, Faller, Binding of transition metal ions to albumin: sites, affinities and rates, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Bankar, Kathuria, Guanylguanidines: catalyst and ligand for organic transformations, ChemistrySelect
Barretto, Jukneliene, Ratia, Chen, Mesecar et al., The papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has deubiquitinating activity, J Virol
Barrios, Ferrer-Luque, Arias-Moliz, Ruiz-Linares, Bravo et al., Antimicrobial substantivity of alexidine and chlorhexidine in dentin, J Endodont
Bellotti, Rowińska-Żyrek, Remelli, How zincbinding systems, expressed by human pathogens, acquire zinc from the colonized host environment: a critical review on zincophores, Curr Med Chem
Benes, Kotrc, Kroupova, Wohlfahrt, Kovar et al., Metformin treatment is associated with improved outcome in patients with diabetes and advanced heart failure (HFrEF), Sci Rep
Berglund, Jakobson, Numers, Halonen, Chemoprophylactic effect of phenylethylbiguanide (DBI) on influenza A2 and influenza B virus infections in diabetic patients, Acta Med Scand
Bestle, Heindl, Limburg, Pilgram, Moulton et al., TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential for proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway cells, Life Sci Alliance
Blaby-Haas, Merchant, Lysosome-related organelles as mediators of metal homeostasis, J Biol Chem
Blaess, Sommerfeld, Csuk, Deigner, Small molecules targeting endolysosomal acidification and signaling in sepsis and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection/ COVID-19, Explor Immunol, doi:10.37349/ei10.37349/ei.2022.00063
Blaurock-Busch, DMPS in metal chelation, Biomed J Sci Tech Res
Bloom, Bloom, Silva, Nicoll, Sawhney, Zinc supplementation and its benefits in the management of chronic liver disease: An in-depth literature review, Annal Hepatol, doi:10.1016/j.aohep.2021.100549
Boulware, Bramante, Pullen, Buse, Odde et al., Metformin reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral load in a phase 3 randomized clinical trial, Top Antiviral Med
Bramante, Buse, Liebovitz, Nicklas, Puskarich et al., Outpatient treatment of COVID-19 and incidence of post-COVID-19 condition over 10 months (COVID-OUT): a multicentre, randomised, quadruple-blind, parallel group, phase 3 trial, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00299-2
Braun, Ou, Kure, Rosenfeldt, Prevalence of zinc deficiency in cardiac surgery patients, Heart Lung Circ
Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Klenk, Garten, Activation of influenza viruses by proteases from host cells and bacteria in the human airway epithelium, Pathogens Dis
Campden, Zhang, The role of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, Arch Biochem Biophys
Cano, Jia, Drag, Huang, Olsen, Targeting SARS-CoV-2 proteases for COVID-19 antiviral development, Front Chem
Cauët, Bogatko, Weare, Fulton, Schenter et al., Structure and dynamics of the hydration shells of the Zn 2+ ion from ab initio molecular dynamics and combined ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations, J Chem Phys
Chai, Truong-Tran, Ho, Zalewski, Regulation of caspase activation and apoptosis by cellular zinc fluxes and zinc deprivation: a review, Immunol Cell Biol
Chan, Casiraghi, Laraway, Coleman, Blau et al., Metformin is associated with reduced COVID-19 severity in patients with prediabetes, Diab Res Clin Pract
Chao, Lee, Foulad, Juhasz, Dobry, Oral metformin for treating dermatological diseases: a systematic review, J Drugs Dermatol
Chen, 'halloran, A zinc chaperone mediates the flow of an inorganic commodity to an important cellular client, Cell
Chen, Yang, Xiao, Tang, Dou et al., Metalbased proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitors as potential anticancer agents, Cancer Metast Rev
Chouduri, Mishina, Shimizu, Yamazaki, Tokumoto et al., High affinity Zn2+ inhibitory site (s) for the trypsin-like peptidase of the 20S proteasome, Arch Biochem Biophys
Constable, What's in a name?-A short history of coordination chemistry from then to now, Chemistry
Corvo, Ferraro, Merlino, Zuberbühler, Donoghue et al., Substrate specificity of cysteine proteases beyond the S2 pocket: mutagenesis and molecular dynamics investigation of Fasciola hepatica Cathepsins L, Front Mol Biosci
Costa, Sarmento-Ribeiro, Gonçalves, Zinc: from biological functions to therapeutic potential, Int J Mol Sci
Costello, Fenselau, Franklin, Evidence for operation of the direct zinc ligand exchange mechanism for trafficking, transport, and reactivity of zinc in mammalian cells, J Inorg Biochem
Creutz, Ford, Meyer, Henry Taube: inorganic chemist extraordinaire, Inorg Chem
Cronan, Potempa, Travis, Mayo, Inhibition of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteinases (gingipains) by chlorhexidine: synergistic effect of Zn(II), Oral Microbiol Immunol
Curd, Davey, Rose, Studies on synthetic antimalarial drugs: X-some biguanide derivatives as new types of antimalarial substances with both therapeutic and causal prophylactic activity, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
Curd, Rose, Synthetic antimalarials. Part X. Some aryl-diguanide ("-biguanide") derivatives, J Chem Soc (Resumed)
Cvek, Milacic, Taraba, Dou, Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) diethyldithiocarbamate complexes show various activities against the proteasome in breast cancer cells, J Med Chem
Damanhouri, Alkreathy, Alharbi, Abualhamail, Ahmad, A review of the impact of pharmacogenetics and metabolomics on the efficacy of metformin in type 2 diabetes, Int J Med Sci
Debela, Magdolen, Skala, Elsässer, Schneider et al., Structural determinants of specificity and regulation of activity in the allosteric loop network of human KLK8/neuropsin, Sci Rep
Delaney, Sheng, Pectol, Vantansever, Zhang et al., Zinc thiotropolone combinations as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, Dalton Trans
Diamond, Kanneganti, Innate immunity: the first line of defense against SARS-CoV-2, Nat Immunol
Ding, Ye, Qiu, Guo, Li et al., Cathepsin B is a potential therapeutic target for coronavirus disease 2019 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, Chemico-Biol Interact
Ding, Zhong, Zinc deficiency: an unexpected trigger for autophagy, J Biol Chem
Djordjevic, Aaseth, A review on coordination properties of thiol-containing chelating agents towards mercury, cadmium, and lead, Molecules
Do Nascimento Marreiro, Cruz, De Oliveira, Morais, De et al., Antiviral and immunological activity of zinc and possible role in COVID-19, Br J Nutr
Dorward, Stewart, Pitt, The role of Zn2+ in shaping intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics in the heart, J General Physiol, doi:10.1085/jgp.202213206
Eggen, Lillo, Antidiabetic II drug metformin in plants: uptake and translocation to edible parts of cereals, oily seeds, beans, tomato, squash, carrots, and potatoes, J Agric Food Chem
Eguchi, Kimura, Makino, Ishida, Autophagy is induced under Zn limitation and contributes to Zn-limited stress tolerance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), Soil Sci Plant Nutr
El-Shimy, Mohamed, Hasan, Hadi, Targeting host cell proteases as a potential treatment strategy to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract, Pharmacol Res Perspect
Erickson, Fenno, Barzilai, Kuchel, Bartley et al., Metformin for treatment of acute COVID-19: systematic review of clinical trial data against SARS-CoV-2, Diabetes Care
Eron, Macpherson, Dagbay, Hardy, Multiple mechanisms of zinc-mediated inhibition for the apoptotic caspases-3,-6,-7, and-8, ACS Chem Biol
Extance, Do hydrogen bonds have covalent character?, Chem World
Ey, Flumamine, a new synthetic analgesic and anti-flu drug, J Philippine Med Assoc
Fara, Lugaro, Galli, Giannattasio, Antiviral activity of selected biguanide derivatives, Pharmacol Res Commun
Farkaš, Minneci, Misevicius, Rozas, A tale of two proteases: MPro and TMPRSS2 as targets for COVID-19 therapies, Pharmaceuticals
Firth, Yu, Bartnicka, Parker, Kim et al., Imaging zinc trafficking in vivo by positron emission tomography with zinc-62, Metallomics
Foretz, Guigas, Viollet, Metformin: update on mechanisms of action and repurposing potential, Nat Rev Endocrinol
Freeland-Graves, Sachdev, Binderberger, Sosanya, Global diversity of dietary intakes and standards for zinc, iron, and copper, J Trace Elements Med Biol
Frezza, Hindo, Tomco, Allard, Cui et al., Comparative activities of nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of asymmetric [NN′ O] ligands as 26S proteasome inhibitors, Inorg Chem
Gagnon, Sadasivan, Yogasundaram, Oudit, Review of hydroxychloroquine cardiotoxicity: lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic, Current Heart Fail Rep
Gao, Zhou, Shi, Xia, Shen, Friend or Foe? Implication of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19, Int J Biol Sci
Gasecka, Pruc, Kukula, Gilis-Malinowska, Filipiak et al., Post-COVID-19 heart syndrome, Cardiol J
Gasmi, Peana, Noor, Lysiuk, Menzel et al., Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of COVID-19: the never-ending story, Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
Gormsen, Sundelin, Jensen, Vendelbo, Jakobsen et al., In vivo imaging of human 11C-metformin in peripheral organs: dosimetry, biodistribution, and kinetic analyses, J Nuclear Med
Goto, Perencevich, Metformin and infections: what is the next step in this decades-long story?, Clin Infect Dis
Grifagni, Calderone, Giuntini, Cantini, Fragai et al., SARS-CoV-2 M pro inhibition by a zinc ion: structural features and hints for drug design, Chem Commun
Gross, Graef, Mechanisms of autophagy in metabolic stress response, J Mol Biol
Grytsai, Myrgorodska, Rocchi, Ronco, Benhida, Biguanides drugs: past success stories and promising future for drug discovery, Eur J Med Chem
Grytsai, Ronco, Benhida, Synthetic accesses to biguanide compounds, Beilstein J Org Chem
Guicciardi, Miyoshi, Bronk, Gores, Cathepsin B knockout mice are resistant to tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis and liver injury: implications for therapeutic applications, Am J Pathol
Gungor, Kurtar, Koçer, Kose, A guanylurea ligand and its Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes: antibacterial activities and DNA binding properties, Inorg Nano-Metal Chem
Ha, Prela, Carpizo, Loh, p53 and zinc: a malleable relationship, Front Mol Biosci
Haase, Overbeck, Rink, Zinc supplementation for the treatment or prevention of disease: current status and future perspectives, Exp Gerontol
Haile, Brown, Mcdonald, Luo, Jarvis et al., Applying zinc nutrient reference values as proposed by different authorities results in large differences in the estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake by young children and women and in Cameroon, Nutrients
Hall, King, The molecular basis for zinc bioavailability, Int J Mol Sci
Hambidge, Goodall, Stall, Pritts, Post-prandial and daily changes in plasma zinc, J Trace Elements Electrol Health Dis
Han, Chang, Juo, Lee, Yeh et al., Papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV): expression, purification, characterization, and inhibition, Biochemistry
Hara, Yoshigai, Ohashi, Fukada, Zinc in cardiovascular functions and diseases: epidemiology and molecular mechanisms for therapeutic development, Int J Mol Sci
Hara, Yoshigai, Ohashi, Fukada, Zinc transporters as potential therapeutic targets: an updated review, J Pharmacol Sci
Hashimoto, Sakamoto, Deguchi, Yi, Sano et al., Dual inhibition of TMPRSS2 and Cathepsin B prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection in iPS cells, Mol Therapy-Nucleic Acids
Haydon, Cobbett, Transporters of ligands for essential metal ions in plants, New Phytol
He, None
Horie, Kawamata, Ohsumi, Recycling of trace metals by the bulk autophagy in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, J Adv Nutr Hum Metabol
Hrvatin, The effect of metal ions and biguanide complexes on the activity of cathepsin K (Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Li, Huang, Tu, Chen et al., Comprehensive and integrative analysis of two novel SARS-CoV-2 entry associated proteases CTSB and CTSL in healthy individuals and cancer patients, Front Bioeng Biotechnol
Ibrahim, Lowe, Bramante, Shah, Klatt et al., Metformin and Covid-19: focused review of mechanisms and current literature suggesting benefit, Front Endocrinol
Ioannou, Vlasiou, Metal-based complexes against SARS-CoV-2, Biometals
Ishida, Virus inhibitory activity of biguanides and related compounds, Ann N Y Acad Sci
Ivanova, Mariienko, Mehterov, Kazakova, Sbirkov et al., Autophagy and SARS-CoV-2-old players in new games, Int J Mol Sci
Joachimiak, Zinc against COVID-19? Symptom surveillance and deficiency risk groups, PLoS Neglect Trop Dis
Jothimani, Kailasam, Danielraj, Nallathambi, Ramachandran et al., COVID-19: poor outcomes in patients with zinc deficiency, Int J Infect Dis
Kambe, Taylor, Fu, Zinc transporters and their functional integration in mammalian cells, J Biol Chemistry
Kamel, Sabry, Farid, Effect of metformin on left ventricular mass and functional parameters in nondiabetic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, BMC Cardiovasc Disorders
Karges, Cohen, Metal complexes as antiviral agents for SARS-CoV-2, ChemBioChem
Kathuria, Raul, Wanjari, Bharatam, Biguanides: Species with versatile therapeutic applications, Eur J Med Chem
Kaul, Zinc for patients with COVID-19? Reviewing: Ben Abdallah S et al. Twice-daily oral zinc in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a randomized double-blind controlled trial, Clin Infect Dis
Kavanagh, Bhattacharya, Marchetti, Elmes, 'sullivan et al., Hydroxychloroquine does not function as a direct zinc ionophore, Pharmaceutics
Kawamata, Horie, Matsunami, Sasaki, Ohsumi, Zinc starvation induces autophagy in yeast, J Biol Chem
Kim, Choe, Park, Metformin and its therapeutic applications in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease, Korean J Internal Med
Kim, Kim, Kim, Lee, Choi et al., Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and zinc inhibit proteasome-dependent proteolysis, Exp Cell Res
Kim, Lee, Kim, Zinc deficiency induces autophagy in HT-22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line, Int J Mol Sci
Kiss, Szabó, Hunyadi-Gulyás, Medzihradszky, Lipinszki et al., Zn 2+ -induced reversible dissociation of subunit Rpn10/p54 of the Drosophila 26 S proteasome, Biochem J
Kladnik, Dolinar, Kljun, Perea, Grau-Expósito et al., Zinc pyrithione is a potent inhibitor of PLPro and cathepsin L enzymes with ex vivo inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication, J Enzyme Inhibit Med Chem
Klein, Eckhard, Dufour, Solis, Overall, Proteolytic cleavage mechanisms, function, and "Omic" approaches for a near-ubiquitous posttranslational modification, Chem Rev
Klemm, Ebert, Calleja, Allison, Richardson et al., Mechanism and inhibition of the papain-like protease, PLpro, of SARS-CoV-2, EMBO J
Kocyła, Tran, Krężel, Galvanization of protein-protein interactions in a dynamic zinc interactome, Trends Biochem Sci
Kodama, Tanaka, Naito, Katayama, Moriyama, Japan's practical guidelines for zinc deficiency with a particular focus on taste disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and liver cirrhosis, Int J Mol Sci
Koepsell, Organic cation transporters in health and disease, Pharmacol Rev
Koren-Michowitz, Dishy, Zaidenstein, Yona, Berman et al., The effect of losartan and losartan/hydrochlorothiazide fixed-combination on magnesium, zinc, and nitric oxide metabolism in hypertensive patients: a prospective open-label study, Am J Hypertension
Kown, Van Der Steenhoven, Blankenberg, Hoyt, Berry et al., Zinc-mediated reduction of apoptosis in cardiac allografts, Circulation
Kozlyuk, Monteith, Garcia, Damo, Skaar et al., S100 proteins in the innate immune response to pathogens. Calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand superfamily: from basics to medical applications
Krenn, Gaudernak, Holzer, Lanke, Van Kuppeveld et al., Antiviral activity of the zinc ionophores pyrithione and hinokitiol against picornavirus infections, J Virol
Kukic, Kelleher, Kiselyov, Zn2+ efflux through lysosomal exocytosis prevents Zn2+-induced toxicity, J Cell Sci
Kuliyev, Zhang, Sui, Hu, Zinc transporter mutations linked to acrodermatitis enteropathica disrupt function and cause mistrafficking, J Biol Chem
Kwon, Lee, Park, Yang, Kim et al., Dietary zinc intake and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Korean middle-aged and older adults, Nutrients
Lalau, Al-Salameh, Hadjadj, Goronflot, Wiernsperger et al., Metformin use is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in patients with diabetes hospitalised for COVID-19, Diab Metab
Lee, Kenward, Worrall, Vuckovic, Gentile et al., X-ray crystallographic characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease polyprotein cleavage sites essential for viral processing and maturation, Nat Commun
Lee, Kuo, Ko, Hsu, Tsui et al., Structural basis of inhibition specificities of 3C and 3C-like proteases by zinc-coordinating and peptidomimetic compounds, J Biol Chem
Lehrer, Inhaled biguanides and mTOR inhibition for influenza and coronavirus, World Acad Sci J
Leslie, Ma, Franks, Nadeau, Pearson et al., Understanding diabetes heterogeneity: key steps towards precision medicine in diabetes, Lancet Diab Endocrinol
Leuci, Brunetti, Laghezza, Loiodice, Tortorella et al., Importance of biometals as targets in medicinal chemistry: an overview about the role of zinc(II) chelating agents, Appl Sci
Lewnard, Mclaughlin, Malden, Hong, Puzniak et al., Effectiveness of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in preventing hospital admissions and deaths in people with COVID-19: a cohort study in a large US health-care system, Lancet Infect Dis
Li, Hilgenfeld, Whitley, Clercq, Therapeutic strategies for COVID-19: progress and lessons learned, Nat Rev Drug Discov
Li, Li, Cardiovascular protection by metformin: latest advances in basic and clinical research, Cardiology
Li, Providencia, Jiang, Liu, Yu et al., Association of metformin with the mortality and incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with preexisting cardiovascular diseases, Drugs
Li, Xu, Fan, Kang, Deng et al., Effects of single-nucleotide polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metformin, Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol
Liang, Giacomini, Transporters involved in metformin pharmacokinetics and treatment response, J Pharm Sci
Lindner, Fotouhi-Ardakani, Lytvyn, Lachance, Sulea et al., The papain-like protease from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a deubiquitinating enzyme, J Virol
Liu, Huang, Dou, Liu, Inhibition of 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases by metal-containing compounds, Oncoscience
Llobet, Domingo, Corbella, Antidotes for zinc intoxication in mice, Arch Toxicol
Lockwood, Biguanide is a modifiable pharmacophore for recruitment of endogenous Zn 2+ to inhibit cysteinyl cathepsins: review and implications, Biometals
Lockwood, Lysosomal metal, redox and proton cycles influencing the CysHis cathepsin reaction, Metallomics
Lockwood, Opposing actions of cholinergic agonist and trinitroglycerin on net vascular resistance in perfused rat heart, Int J Cardiol
Lockwood, Responsiveness of parasite Cys His proteases to iron redox, Parasitol Res
Lockwood, The lysosome among targets of metformin: new anti-inflammatory uses for an old drug?, Expert Opin Therap Targets
Lofts, Speciation of pyrithione in freshwaters: a report López-Otín C, Bond JS (2008) Proteases: multifunctional enzymes in life and disease, J Biol Chem
Lu, Metal ions as matchmakers for proteins, Proc Natl Acad Sci
Ma, Krishnamurthy, Is metformin use associated with low mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19? a multivariable and propensity score-adjusted meta-analysis, PLoS ONE
Maares, Haase, A guide to human zinc absorption: general overview and recent advances of in vitro intestinal models, Nutrients
Maares, Hackler, Haupt, Heller, Bachmann et al., Free zinc as a predictive marker for COVID-19 mortality risk, Nutrients
Macdonald, Connolly, Dicaudo, Think zinc deficiency: acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica due to poor diet and common medications, Arch Dermatol
Maiti, Can papain-like protease inhibitors halt SARS-CoV-2 replication?, ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci
Marzi, Vakil, Bahmanyar, Zarenezhad, Paxlovid: mechanism of action, synthesis, and in silico study, BioMed Res Int
Marzo, Messori, A role for metal-based drugs in fighting COVID-19 infection? The case of auranofin, ACS Med Chem Lett
Mayer, Daigle, Brown, Khatri, Organ, An expedient and facile one-step synthesis of a biguanide library by microwave irradiation coupled with simple product filtration. Inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase, J Comb Chem
Mehrotra, Shukla, Gaur, Metallo-antiviral aspirants: Answer to the upcoming virus outbreak, Eur J Med Chem Rep
Meng, Ruan, Chen, Yan, Meng et al., Serum zinc ion concentration associated with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and metaanalysis, Cardiol Res Pract
Miyakoda, Bayarsaikhan, Kimura, Akbari, Udono et al., Metformin promotes the protection of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii independently of γδ T cell expansion, Front Immunol
Miyoshi, Tanabe, Suzuki, Cellular zinc is required for intestinal epithelial barrier maintenance via the regulation of claudin-3 and occludin expression, Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol
Mohammad Beigi, Maverakis, Beigi, Maverakis, History of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica, Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A Clinician's Guide
Mohammad, Almulathanon, Fathi, Assessment of the effects of metformin and glibenclamide on the concentration of selected trace elements in type 2 diabetic patients, Pharmacia
Müller, Maus, Hammerschmidt, Knaff, Mailänder et al., Interfering with host proteases in SARS-CoV-2 entry as a promising therapeutic strategy, Current Med Chem
Nespor, Andrianova, Pollack, Pfau, Arifuzzaman et al., Metformin uptake and translocation in chickpeas: determination using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, ACS Omega
Ng, Pike, Boyd, Subsite cooperativity in protease specificity, Biol Chem
Novinec, Bembič, Janković, Kisilak, Kljun et al., Kinetic characterization of cerium and gallium ions as inhibitors of cysteine cathepsins L, K, and S, Int J Mol Sci
Nriagu, Zinc toxicity in humans
O'halloran, Kebede, Philips, Attie, Zinc, insulin, and the liver: a ménage à trois, J Clin Investig
Olczak-Pruc, Szarpak, Navolokina, Chmielewski, Panasiuk et al., The effect of zinc supplementation on the course of COVID-19-A systematic review and meta-analysis, Ann Agric Environ Med
Oriaifo, Effect of a poly-pill of metformin, artesunate and esomeprazole low-dose (Meald) combination in prevention of malaria and selected metabolic syndrome criteria, World J Pharm Life Sci
Oubahmane, Hdoufane, Bjij, Lahcen, Villemin et al., Host cell proteases mediating SARS-CoV-2 entry: an overview, Current Top Med Chem
Overall, Blobel, In search of partners: linking extracellular proteases to substrates, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol
Owen, Allerton, Anderson, Aschenbrenner, Avery et al., An oral SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor clinical candidate for the treatment of COVID-19, Science
Ozyildirim, Baltaci, Cardiovascular diseases and zinc, Biol Trace Element Res
Pal, Musib, Roy, Transition metal complexes as potential tools against SARS-CoV-2: an in silico approach, New J Chem
Paludan, Mogensen, Innate immunological pathways in COVID-19 pathogenesis, Sci Immunol
Pedrosa, Martins, Rizzo, Silva-Nunes, Metformin in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a hidden path-from altered inflammation to reduced mortality. A review from the literature, J Diab Compl
Perry, Smyth, Stennicke, Salvesen, Duriez et al., Zinc is a potent inhibitor of the apoptotic protease, caspase-3: a novel target for zinc in the inhibition of apoptosis, J Biol Chem
Petrillo, Orrù, Fais, Fantini, Quercetin and its derivates as antiviral potentials: a comprehensive review, Phytotherapy Res
Pizzato, Baraldi, Sopetto, Finozzi, Gentile et al., SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell: a tale of interactions, Front Virol, doi:10.3389/fviro.2021.815388
Plum, Rink, Haase, The essential toxin: impact of zinc on human health, Int J Environ Res Public Health
Podsiadlo, Komiyama, Fuller, Blum, Furin inhibition by compounds of copper and zinc, J Biol Chem
Poulson, Szczepski, Lachowicz, Jaremko, Emwas et al., Aggregation of biologically important peptides and proteins: inhibition or acceleration depending on protein and metal ion concentrations, RSC Adv
Prasad, Oberleas, Binding of zinc to amino acids and serum proteins in vitro, J Lab Clin Med
Puente, López-Otín, A genomic analysis of rat proteases and protease inhibitors, Genome Res
Qiao, Olvera De La Cruz, Enhanced binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to receptor by distal polybasic cleavage sites, ACS Nano
Rawlings, Peptidase inhibitors in the MEROPS database, Biochimie
Raza, Al-Niaimi, Ali, A systematic review of the uses of metformin in dermatology, Clin Exp Dermatol
Reis, Metzendorf, Kuehn, Popp, Gagyor et al., Nirmatrelvir combined with ritonavir for preventing and treating COVID-19, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Renz, Hohner, Breitenbach, Josephs-Spaulding, Dürrwald et al., Metabolic modeling elucidates phenformin and atpenin A5 as broad-spectrum antiviral drugs, doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0223.v1
Rheingold, Raval, Gordon, Hardigan, Zinc supplementation associated with a decrease in mortality in COVID-19 patients: a meta-analysis, Cureus
Richie, Askew, Autophagy: a role in metal ion homeostasis?, Autophagy
Robert, Bad news for paxlovid? Coronavirus can find multiple ways to evade COVID-19 drug, Science
Rosenblum, Wessler, Gupta, Maurer, Bikdeli, Zinc deficiency and heart failure: a Vol:. (1234567890) systematic review of the current literature, J Cardiac Fail
Rusanov, Zou, Babak, Biological properties of transition metal complexes with metformin and its analogues, Pharmaceuticals
Saadat, Khatibi, Vahed, Ardalan, Host serine proteases: a potential targeted therapy for COVID-19 and influenza, Front Mol Biosci
Sauer, Vela, Vela, Stark, Barrera-Juarez et al., Zinc deficiency in men over 50 and its implications in prostate disorders, Front Oncol
Scarcella, Angelo, Ciampa, Tafuri, Avallone et al., The key role of lysosomal protease cathepsins in viral infections, Int J Mol Sci
Scavo, Oliveri, Zinc ionophores: chemistry and biological applications, J Inorg Biochem
Schmitz, Gilberg, Löser, Bajorath, Bartz et al., Cathepsin B: active site mapping with peptidic substrates and inhibitors, Bioorg Med Chem
Seregin, Kozhevnikova, Nicotianamine: a key player in metal homeostasis and hyperaccumulation in plants, Int J Mol Sci
Settembre, Malta, Polito, Arencibia, Vetrini et al., TFEB Links Autophagy to Lysosomal Biogenesis, Science, doi:10.1126/science.1204592
Sewanan, Clerkin, Tucker, Tsai, How does COVID-19 affect the heart?, Current Cardiol Rep
Seyedmahalleh, Montazer, Ebrahimpour-Koujan, Azadbakht, The effect of zinc supplementation on lipid profiles in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, Adv Nutr
Shahabadi, Zendehcheshm, Mahdavi, Khademi, Inhibitory activity of FDA-approved drugs cetilistat, abiraterone, diiodohydroxyquinoline, bexarotene, remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine on COVID-19 main protease and human ACE2 receptor: a comparative in silico approach, Inform Med Unlocked
Sharma, Gupta, Fundamentals of viruses and their proteases
Sheppard, Moroxydine: the story of a mislaid antiviral, Acta Dermato-Venereol
Shetler, Ferreira, Cardoso, Silva, Saksena et al., Therapeutic potential of metal ions for COVID-19: insights from the papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2, Biochem J
Shirasaka, Seki, Hatakeyama, Kurokawa, Uchiyama et al., Multiple transport mechanisms involved in the intestinal absorption of metformin: impact on the nonlinear absorption kinetics, J Pharm Sci
Shirbhate, Pandey, Patel, Kamal, Jawaid et al., Understanding the role of ACE-2 receptor in pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease: a potential approach for therapeutic intervention, Pharmacol Rep
Sidik, Heart-disease risk soars after COVIDeven with a mild case, Nature
Skalny, Rink, Ajsuvakova, Aschner, Gritsenko et al., Zinc and respiratory tract infections: perspectives for COVID-19, Int J Mol Med
Skinner-Adams, Fisher, Riches, Hutt, Jarvis et al., Cyclizationblocked proguanil as a strategy to improve the antimalarial activity of atovaquone, Commun Biol
Stanek, Rösener, Metz, Mannsperger, Hoffmann et al., Guanidine metal complexes for bioinorganic chemistry and polymerisation catalysis, Guanidines Reagents Catal
Stanton, Sanders, Krämer, Podar, Zinc in plants: integrating homeostasis and biofortification, mol Plant
Stefano, Ogburn, Ram, Scharfstein, Li et al., Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19: AN individual participant data meta-analysis, PLoS ONE
Strand, Lillegaard, Frøyland, Haugen, Henjum et al., Assessment of zinc intake in relation to tolerable upper intake levels. Opinion of the Panel on Nutrition, Dietetic Products, Novel Food and Allergy of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety. VKM report, Food Funct
Sundelin, Jensen, Jakobsen, Gormsen, Jessen, Metformin biodistribution: a key to mechanisms of action?, J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Sweeney, Raymer, Lockwood, Antidiabetic and antimalarial biguanide drugs are metalinteractive antiproteolytic agents, Biochem Pharmacol
Tabatabaeizadeh, Zinc supplementation and COVID-19 mortality: a meta-analysis, Eur J Med Res
Tamaki, Fujitani, Hara, Uchida, Tamura et al., The diabetes-susceptible gene SLC30A8/ZnT8 regulates hepatic insulin clearance, J Clin Investig
Tao, Zhang, Du, Lu, Zhao et al., Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by zinc gluconate in combination with hinokitiol, J Inorg Biochem
Thompson, Regulation of zinc-dependent enzymes by metal carrier proteins, Biometals
Tisler, Zwiener, Aerobic and anaerobic formation and biodegradation of guanyl urea and other transformation products of metformin, Water Res
Tseng, Metformin and risk of gingival/periodontal diseases in diabetes patients: a retrospective cohort study, Front Endocrinol
Tušar, Usenik, Turk, Turk, Mechanisms applied by protein inhibitors to inhibit cysteine proteases, Int J Mol Sci
Tönnesmann, Kandolf, Lewalter, Chloroquine cardiomyopathy-a review of the literature, Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
Velthuis, Van Den Worm, Sims, Baric, Snijder et al., Zn 2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture, PLoS Pathog
Vera, Ruivo, Rocha, Marques, Bhatia et al., Targeting liver stage malaria with metformin, JCI insight, doi:10.1172/jci.insight.127441
Verani, Metal complexes as inhibitors of the 26S proteasome in tumor cells, J Inorg Biochem
Vincent, Bergeron, Benjannet, Erickson, Rollin et al., Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread, Virol J
Vinceti, Filippini, Fairweather-Tait, A potential role for zinc to enhance treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?, Clin Infect Dis
Vogel-González, Talló-Parra, Herrera-Fernández, Pérez-Vilaró, Chillón et al., Low zinc levels at admission associates with poor clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Nutrients
Wang, Jia, Shen, Wang, Fu et al., Cathepsin B aggravates coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis through activating the inflammasome and promoting pyroptosis, PLoS Pathog
Wang, Yu, Chang, Zhang, Zhang et al., Inflammasomes: a rising star on the horizon of COVID-19 pathophysiology, Front Immunol
Weinberg, Antimicrobial activities of biguanides, Ann N Y Acad Sci
Wessells, Brown, Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting, PLoS ONE
Wessels, Rolles, Rink, The potential impact of zinc supplementation on COVID-19 pathogenesis, Front Immunol
Wessels, Rolles, Slusarenko, Rink, Zinc deficiency as a possible risk factor for increased susceptibility and severe progression of Corona Virus Disease 19, Br J Nutr
Whittaker, SARS-CoV-2 spike and its adaptable furin cleavage site, Lancet Microbe
Wiernsperger, Al-Salameh, Cariou, Lalau, Protection by metformin against severe Covid-19: an in-depth mechanistic analysis, Diab Metab
Wishart, Guo, Oler, Wang, Anjum et al., HMDB 50: the human metabolome database for 2022, Nucleic Acids Res
Wu, Yang, Yu, Qin, Wu et al., Association of metformin use with iron deficiency anemia in urban chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, Nutrients
Wu, Zheng, Yang, Gu, Yang et al., Furin: a potential therapeutic target for COVID-19, iScience
Xie, Xu, Bowe, Al-Aly, Long-term cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19, Nat Med
Xie, Zhao, Yan, Kong, Lan, Cathepsin B in programmed cell death machinery: mechanisms of execution and regulatory pathways, Cell Death Dis
Xu, Zhou, Zheng, Yang, Huang et al., Roles of inflammasomes in viral myocarditis, Front Cell Infect Microbiol
Yamada, Takaoka, Innate immune recognition against SARS-CoV-2, Inflamm Regen
Yen, Wang, Lin, Wei, Metformin use before COVID-19 vaccination and the risks of COVID-19 incidence, medical utilization, and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diab Res Clin Pract
Yoon, Kim, Jeon, Kwon, Jang et al., Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants-Possibility of universal vaccine design: A review, Computat Struct Biotech J, doi:10.1016/j.csbj.2022.06.043
Yoshihisa, Abe, Kiko, Kimishima, Sato et al., Association of serum zinc level with prognosis in patients with heart failure, J Cardiac Fail
Younis, Thanoon, Fadhil, Merkhan, Effect of zinc as an add-on to metformin therapy on glycemic control, serum insulin, and c-peptide levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus patient, Res J Pharm Technol
Yu, Huang, Zhao, Wang, Yao et al., The relationship between serum zinc level and heart failure: a meta-analysis, BioMed Res Int
Yuan, Carter, Bruzelius, Vithayathil, Kar et al., Effects of tumour necrosis factor on cardiovascular disease and cancer: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study, EBioMedicine
Yuan, Chan, Chik, Chan, Tsang et al., Discovery of the FDA-approved drugs bexarotene, cetilistat, diiodohydroxyquinoline, and abiraterone as potential COVID-19 treatments with a robust two-tier screening system, Pharmacol Res
Zake, Kurlovics, Zaharenko, Komasilovs, Klovins et al., Physiologically based metformin pharmacokinetics model of mice and scale-up to humans for the estimation of concentrations in various tissues, PLoS ONE
Zake, Kurlovics, Zaharenko, Komasilovs, Klovins et al., Role of human organic cation transporter-1 (OCT-1/SLC22A1) in modulating the response to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes, BMC Endocrine Disorders
Zawawi, Kalyanasundram, Zain, Thayan, Basri et al., prospective roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in COVID-19: prognosis, therapeutic and management, Int J Mol Sci
Zhang, Song, Mucci, Giovannucci, Zinc supplement use and risk of aggressive prostate cancer: a 30-year follow-up study, Eur J Epidemiol
Zhao, Chen, Yang, Zang, Lan et al., Repurposing an antidandruff agent to treating cancer: zinc pyrithione inhibits tumor growth via targeting proteasome-associated deubiquitinases, Oncotarget
Zhao, Yang, Yang, Zhang, Huang et al., Cathepsin L plays a key role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and humanized mice and is a promising target for new drug development, Signal Transduct Targeted Therapy
Zhou, Li, Leung, 'donovan, Zou et al., Deep profiling of protease substrate specificity enabled by dual random and scanned human proteome substrate phage libraries, Proc Natl Acad Sci
Zlobin, Current understanding of plant zinc homeostasis regulation mechanisms, Plant Physiol Biochem
Zou, Du, Yang, Cao, Trace element zinc and skin disorders, Front Med
Álvarez-Fernández, Díaz-Benito, Abadía, López-Millán, Abadía, Metal species involved in long distance metal transport in plants, Front Plant Sci
Ćwilichowska, Świderska, Dobrzyń, Drąg, Poręba, Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of protease inhibition, Mol Aspects Med
{ 'DOI': '10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5', 'ISSN': ['0966-0844', '1572-8773'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5', 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Independent trials indicate that either oral ' 'Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> or metformin can separately improve COVID-19 outcomes by ' 'approximately\xa040%. Coordination chemistry predicts a mechanistic relationship and ' 'therapeutic synergy. Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> deficit is a known risk factor for both ' 'COVID-19 and non-infectious inflammation. Most dietary Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> is not ' 'absorbed. Metformin is a naked ligand that presumably increases intestinal ' 'Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> bioavailability and active absorption by cation transporters known ' 'to transport metformin. Intracellular Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> provides a natural buffer of ' 'many protease reactions; the variable “set point” is determined by Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> ' 'regulation or availability. A Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup>-interactive protease network is ' 'suggested here. The two viral cysteine proteases are therapeutic targets against COVID-19. ' 'Viral and many host proteases are submaximally inhibited by exchangeable cell ' 'Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup>. Inhibition of cysteine proteases can improve COVID-19 outcomes and ' 'non-infectious inflammation. Metformin reportedly enhances the natural moderating effect of ' 'Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> on bioassayed proteome degradation. Firstly, the dissociable ' 'metformin–Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> complex could be actively transported by intestinal ' 'cation transporters; thereby creating artificial pathways of absorption and increased body ' 'Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> content. Secondly, metformin Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> coordination ' 'can create a non-natural protease inhibitor independent of cell Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup> ' 'content. Moderation of peptidolytic reactions by either or both mechanisms could slow (a) ' 'viral multiplication (b) viral invasion and (c) the pathogenic host inflammatory response. ' 'These combined actions could allow development of acquired immunity to clear the infection ' 'before life-threatening inflammation. Nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid®) opposes COVID-19 by selective ' 'inhibition the viral main protease by a Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup>-independent mechanism. ' 'Pending safety evaluation, predictable synergistic benefits of metformin and ' 'Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup>, and perhaps metformin/Zn<jats:sup>2+</jats:sup>/Paxlovid® ' 'co-administration should be investigated.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['590'], 'assertion': [ { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'Received', 'name': 'received', 'order': 1, 'value': '24 November 2023'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'Accepted', 'name': 'accepted', 'order': 2, 'value': '12 February 2024'}, { 'group': {'label': 'Article History', 'name': 'ArticleHistory'}, 'label': 'First Online', 'name': 'first_online', 'order': 3, 'value': '5 April 2024'}, {'group': {'label': 'Declarations', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 1}, { 'group': {'label': 'Conflict of interest', 'name': 'EthicsHeading'}, 'name': 'Ethics', 'order': 2, 'value': 'There are no conflicting interests.'}], 'author': [{'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lockwood', 'given': 'Thomas D.', 'sequence': 'first'}], 'container-title': 'BioMetals', 'container-title-short': 'Biometals', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': ['link.springer.com']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 5]], 'date-time': '2024-04-05T12:02:07Z', 'timestamp': 1712318527000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 5]], 'date-time': '2024-04-05T13:10:32Z', 'timestamp': 1712322632000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 6]], 'date-time': '2024-04-06T00:50:35Z', 'timestamp': 1712364635359}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 5]]}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 5]], 'date-time': '2024-04-05T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1712275200000}}, { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 5]], 'date-time': '2024-04-05T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1712275200000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '297', 'original-title': [], 'prefix': '10.1007', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 5]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 5]]}, 'publisher': 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1007/s10741-020-10037-x', 'author': 'EA Adeghate', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '363', 'journal-title': 'Heart Fail Rev', 'key': '590_CR1', 'unstructured': 'Adeghate EA, Eid N, Singh J (2021) Mechanisms of COVID-19-induced heart ' 'failure: a short review. Heart Fail Rev 26:363–369', 'volume': '26', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/0006-291X(79)91825-4', 'author': 'PJ Aggett', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '513', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Biochem Biophys Res Commun', 'key': '590_CR2', 'unstructured': 'Aggett PJ, Delves HT, Harries JT, Bangham AD (1979) The possible role of ' 'diodoquin as a zinc ionophore in the treatment of acrodermatitis ' 'enteropathica. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 87(2):513–517', 'volume': '87', 'year': '1979'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ica.2020.119521', 'author': 'I Ahmad', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Inorganica Chim Acta', 'key': '590_CR3', 'unstructured': 'Ahmad I (2020) Transition metal complexes as proteasome inhibitors for ' 'cancer treatment. Inorganica Chim Acta 506:119521', 'volume': '506', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.317055', 'author': 'A Akhmerov', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1443', 'issue': '10', 'journal-title': 'Circ Res', 'key': '590_CR4', 'unstructured': 'Akhmerov A, Marbán E (2020) COVID-19 and the heart. Circ Res ' '126(10):1443–1455', 'volume': '126', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/acsptsci.1c00167', 'author': 'M Ala', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1747', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci', 'key': '590_CR5', 'unstructured': 'Ala M, Ala M (2021) Metformin for cardiovascular protection, ' 'inflammatory bowel disease, osteoporosis, periodontitis, polycystic ' 'ovarian syndrome, neurodegeneration, cancer, inflammation and ' 'senescence: what is next? ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 4(6):1747–1770', 'volume': '4', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/177525a0', 'author': 'A Albert', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '525', 'issue': '4507', 'journal-title': 'Nature', 'key': '590_CR6', 'unstructured': 'Albert A (1956) Mode of action of isoniazid. Nature 177(4507):525–526', 'volume': '177', 'year': '1956'}, { 'DOI': '10.1039/D1CC03563K', 'author': 'W AliáKhan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '10083', 'issue': '78', 'journal-title': 'Chem Commun', 'key': '590_CR7', 'unstructured': 'AliáKhan W, KumaráVerma D, AzeemáKhan M, KumaráMohapatra A, KumaráNanda ' 'R (2021) Zinc 2+ ion inhibits SARS-CoV-2 main protease and viral ' 'replication in vitro. Chem Commun 57(78):10083–10086', 'volume': '57', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu15020340', 'author': 'AS Almasaud', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '340', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '590_CR8', 'unstructured': 'Almasaud AS, Chalabi J, Arfaj AA, Qarni AA, Alkroud A, Nagoor Z, Iqbal J ' '(2023) Association of serum zinc and inflammatory markers with the ' 'severity of COVID-19 infection in adult patients. Nutrients 15(2):340', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fpls.2014.00105', 'author': 'A Álvarez-Fernández', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '105', 'journal-title': 'Front Plant Sci', 'key': '590_CR9', 'unstructured': 'Álvarez-Fernández A, Díaz-Benito P, Abadía A, López-Millán AF, Abadía J ' '(2014) Metal species involved in long distance metal transport in ' 'plants. Front Plant Sci 5:105', 'volume': '5', 'year': '2014'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/ja020029y', 'author': 'S Aoki', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '5256', 'issue': '19', 'journal-title': 'J Am Chem Soc', 'key': '590_CR10', 'unstructured': 'Aoki S, Iwaida K, Hanamoto N, Shiro M, Kimura E (2002) Guanidine is a ' 'Zn2+-binding ligand at neutral pH in aqueous solution. J Am Chem Soc ' '124(19):5256–5257', 'volume': '124', 'year': '2002'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.06.018', 'author': 'W Bal', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '5444', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'Biochimica et Biophysica Acta', 'key': '590_CR11', 'unstructured': 'Bal W, Sokołowska M, Kurowska E, Faller P (2013) Binding of transition ' 'metal ions to albumin: sites, affinities and rates. Biochimica et ' 'Biophysica Acta 1830(12):5444–5455', 'volume': '1830', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/slct.202201273', 'author': 'AA Bankar', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '29', 'journal-title': 'ChemistrySelect', 'key': '590_CR12', 'unstructured': 'Bankar AA, Kathuria D (2022) Guanylguanidines: catalyst and ligand for ' 'organic transformations. ChemistrySelect 7(29):e202201273', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.79.24.15189-15198.2005', 'author': 'N Barretto', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '15189', 'issue': '24', 'journal-title': 'J Virol', 'key': '590_CR13', 'unstructured': 'Barretto N, Jukneliene D, Ratia K, Chen Z, Mesecar AD, Baker SC (2005) ' 'The papain-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome ' 'coronavirus has deubiquitinating activity. J Virol 79(24):15189–15198', 'volume': '79', 'year': '2005'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.joen.2013.07.038', 'author': 'R Barrios', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1413', 'issue': '11', 'journal-title': 'J Endodont', 'key': '590_CR14', 'unstructured': 'Barrios R, Ferrer-Luque CM, Arias-Moliz MT, Ruiz-Linares M, Bravo M, ' 'Baca P (2013) Antimicrobial substantivity of alexidine and chlorhexidine ' 'in dentin. J Endodont 39(11):1413–1415', 'volume': '39', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/978-3-319-17819-6_1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': '590_CR15', 'unstructured': 'Khan Mohammad Beigi P, Maverakis E, Beigi PKM, Maverakis E (2015) ' 'History of Acrodermatitis Enteropathica. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A ' "Clinician's Guide, pp 3–5"}, { 'DOI': '10.2174/1389200222666210514012945', 'author': 'D Bellotti', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7312', 'issue': '35', 'journal-title': 'Curr Med Chem', 'key': '590_CR16', 'unstructured': 'Bellotti D, Rowińska-Żyrek M, Remelli M (2021) How zinc-binding systems, ' 'expressed by human pathogens, acquire zinc from the colonized host ' 'environment: a critical review on zincophores. Curr Med Chem 28(35):7312', 'volume': '28', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciac807', 'author': 'S Ben Abdallah', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '185', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'key': '590_CR17', 'unstructured': 'Ben Abdallah S, Mhalla Y, Trabelsi I, Sekma A, Youssef R, Ali BH (2023) ' 'Twice-daily oral zinc in the treatment of patients with coronavirus ' 'disease 2019: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Clin Infect ' 'Dis 76(2):185–191', 'volume': '76', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-022-17327-4', 'author': 'J Benes', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '13038', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Sci Rep', 'key': '590_CR18', 'unstructured': 'Benes J, Kotrc M, Kroupova K, Wohlfahrt P, Kovar J, Franekova J, ' 'Melenovsky V et al (2022) Metformin treatment is associated with ' 'improved outcome in patients with diabetes and advanced heart failure ' '(HFrEF). Sci Rep 12(1):13038', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/j.0954-6820.1970.tb08060.x', 'author': 'B Berglund', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '415', 'issue': '1–6', 'journal-title': 'Acta Med Scand', 'key': '590_CR19', 'unstructured': 'Berglund B, Jakobson T, von Numers J, Halonen P (1970) Chemoprophylactic ' 'effect of phenylethylbiguanide (DBI) on influenza A2 and influenza B ' 'virus infections in diabetic patients. Acta Med Scand 188(1–6):415–418', 'volume': '188', 'year': '1970'}, { 'DOI': '10.26508/lsa.202000786', 'author': 'D Bestle', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e202000786', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'Life Sci Alliance', 'key': '590_CR20', 'unstructured': 'Bestle D, Heindl MR, Limburg H, Pilgram O, Moulton H, Stein DA, ' 'Böttcher-Friebertshäuser E (2020) TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential ' 'for proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway cells. Life Sci ' 'Alliance 3(9):e202000786', 'volume': '3', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.R114.592618', 'author': 'CE Blaby-Haas', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '28129', 'issue': '41', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR21', 'unstructured': 'Blaby-Haas CE, Merchant SS (2014) Lysosome-related organelles as ' 'mediators of metal homeostasis. J Biol Chem 289(41):28129–28136', 'volume': '289', 'year': '2014'}, { 'DOI': '10.37349/ei10.37349/ei.2022.00063', 'author': 'P Blaess', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '484', 'journal-title': 'Explor Immunol', 'key': '590_CR262', 'unstructured': 'Blaess M, Sommerfeld O, Csuk R, Deigner HP (2022) Small molecules ' 'targeting endolysosomal acidification and signaling in sepsis and severe ' 'SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19. Explor Immunol 2(4):484–509. ' 'https://doi.org/10.37349/ei10.37349/ei.2022.00063', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2022'}, { 'author': 'E Blaurock-Busch', 'first-page': '23206', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Biomed J Sci Tech Res', 'key': '590_CR22', 'unstructured': 'Blaurock-Busch E (2020) DMPS in metal chelation. Biomed J Sci Tech Res ' '30(1):23206–23210', 'volume': '30', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/2049-632X.12053', 'author': 'E Böttcher-Friebertshäuser', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '87', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Pathogens Dis', 'key': '590_CR23', 'unstructured': 'Böttcher-Friebertshäuser E, Klenk HD, Garten W (2013) Activation of ' 'influenza viruses by proteases from host cells and bacteria in the human ' 'airway epithelium. Pathogens Dis 69(2):87–100', 'volume': '69', 'year': '2013'}, { 'author': 'DR Boulware', 'first-page': '70', 'journal-title': 'Top Antiviral Med', 'key': '590_CR24', 'unstructured': 'Boulware DR, Bramante C, Pullen M, Buse J, Odde D, Mehta T, Murray TA et ' 'al (2023) Metformin reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral load in a phase 3 ' 'randomized clinical trial. Top Antiviral Med 70:70', 'volume': '70', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.aohep.2021.100549', 'author': 'A Bloom', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Annal Hepatol', 'key': '590_CR263', 'unstructured': 'Bloom A, Bloom S, Silva H, Nicoll AJ, Sawhney R (2021) Zinc ' 'supplementation and its benefits in the management of chronic liver ' 'disease: An in-depth literature review. Annal Hepatol 25. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aohep.2021.100549', 'volume': '25', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00299-2', 'author': 'CT Bramante', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis', 'key': '590_CR25', 'unstructured': 'Bramante CT, Buse JB, Liebovitz DM, Nicklas JM, Puskarich MA, Cohen K, ' 'Boulware DR (2023) Outpatient treatment of COVID-19 and incidence of ' 'post-COVID-19 condition over 10 months (COVID-OUT): a multicentre, ' 'randomised, quadruple-blind, parallel group, phase 3 trial. Lancet ' 'Infect Dis. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00299-2', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.hlc.2017.07.009', 'author': 'LA Braun', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '760', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'Heart Lung Circ', 'key': '590_CR26', 'unstructured': 'Braun LA, Ou R, Kure C, Trang A, Rosenfeldt F (2018) Prevalence of zinc ' 'deficiency in cardiac surgery patients. Heart Lung Circ 27(6):760–762', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.abb.2019.02.015', 'author': 'RI Campden', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '32', 'journal-title': 'Arch Biochem Biophys', 'key': '590_CR27', 'unstructured': 'Campden RI, Zhang Y (2019) The role of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins in ' 'NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Arch Biochem Biophys 670:32–42', 'volume': '670', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1063/1.3421542', 'author': 'E Cauët', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '19', 'journal-title': 'J Chem Phys', 'key': '590_CR28', 'unstructured': 'Cauët E, Bogatko S, Weare JH, Fulton JL, Schenter GK, Bylaska EJ (2010) ' 'Structure and dynamics of the hydration shells of the Zn 2+ ion from ab ' 'initio molecular dynamics and combined ab initio and classical molecular ' 'dynamics simulations. J Chem Phys 132(19):194502', 'volume': '132', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.1046/j.1440-1711.1999.00825.x', 'author': 'F Chai', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '272', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Immunol Cell Biol', 'key': '590_CR29', 'unstructured': 'Chai F, Truong-Tran AQ, Ho LH, Zalewski PD (1999) Regulation of caspase ' 'activation and apoptosis by cellular zinc fluxes and zinc deprivation: a ' 'review. Immunol Cell Biol 77(3):272–278', 'volume': '77', 'year': '1999'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.diabres.2022.110157', 'author': 'LE Chan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '110157', 'journal-title': 'Diab Res Clin Pract', 'key': '590_CR30', 'unstructured': 'Chan LE, Casiraghi E, Laraway B, Coleman B, Blau H, Zaman A, Reese J et ' 'al (2022) Metformin is associated with reduced COVID-19 severity in ' 'patients with prediabetes. Diab Res Clin Pract 194:110157', 'volume': '194', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cell.2022.05.012', 'author': 'YY Chen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2013', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'Cell', 'key': '590_CR31', 'unstructured': 'Chen YY, O’Halloran TV (2022) A zinc chaperone mediates the flow of an ' 'inorganic commodity to an important cellular client. Cell ' '185(12):2013–2015', 'volume': '185', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s10555-017-9701-1', 'author': 'X Chen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '655', 'journal-title': 'Cancer Metast Rev', 'key': '590_CR32', 'unstructured': 'Chen X, Yang Q, Xiao L, Tang D, Dou QP, Liu J (2017) Metal-based ' 'proteasomal deubiquitinase inhibitors as potential anticancer agents. ' 'Cancer Metast Rev 36:655–668', 'volume': '36', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.abb.2008.04.037', 'author': 'AU Chouduri', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '113', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Arch Biochem Biophys', 'key': '590_CR33', 'unstructured': 'Chouduri AU, Mishina K, Shimizu T, Yamazaki M, Tokumoto T, Yamada S ' '(2008) High affinity Zn2+ inhibitory site (s) for the trypsin-like ' 'peptidase of the 20S proteasome. Arch Biochem Biophys 477(1):113–120', 'volume': '477', 'year': '2008'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/chemistry1010010', 'author': 'EC Constable', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '126', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Chemistry', 'key': '590_CR34', 'unstructured': 'Constable EC (2019) What’s in a name?—A short history of coordination ' 'chemistry from then to now. Chemistry 1(1):126–163', 'volume': '1', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fmolb.2018.00040', 'author': 'I Corvo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '40', 'journal-title': 'Front Mol Biosci', 'key': '590_CR35', 'unstructured': 'Corvo I, Ferraro F, Merlino A, Zuberbühler K, O’Donoghue AJ, Pastro L, ' 'Tort JF et al (2018) Substrate specificity of cysteine proteases beyond ' 'the S2 pocket: mutagenesis and molecular dynamics investigation of ' 'Fasciola hepatica Cathepsins L. Front Mol Biosci 5:40', 'volume': '5', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms24054822', 'author': 'MI Costa', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4822', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR36', 'unstructured': 'Costa MI, Sarmento-Ribeiro AB, Gonçalves AC (2023) Zinc: from biological ' 'functions to therapeutic potential. Int J Mol Sci 24(5):4822', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.02.002', 'author': 'LC Costello', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '589', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'J Inorg Biochem', 'key': '590_CR37', 'unstructured': 'Costello LC, Fenselau CC, Franklin RB (2011) Evidence for operation of ' 'the direct zinc ligand exchange mechanism for trafficking, transport, ' 'and reactivity of zinc in mammalian cells. J Inorg Biochem ' '105(5):589–599', 'volume': '105', 'year': '2011'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/ic060669s', 'author': 'C Creutz', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7059', 'issue': '18', 'journal-title': 'Inorg Chem', 'key': '590_CR38', 'unstructured': 'Creutz C, Ford PC, Meyer TJ (2006) Henry Taube: inorganic chemist ' 'extraordinaire. Inorg Chem 45(18):7059–7068', 'volume': '45', 'year': '2006'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1399-302X.2006.00277.x', 'author': 'CA Cronan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '212', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Oral Microbiol Immunol', 'key': '590_CR39', 'unstructured': 'Cronan CA, Potempa J, Travis J, Mayo JA (2006) Inhibition of ' 'Porphyromonas gingivalis proteinases (gingipains) by chlorhexidine: ' 'synergistic effect of Zn(II). Oral Microbiol Immunol 21(4):212–217', 'volume': '21', 'year': '2006'}, { 'DOI': '10.1039/JR9460000729', 'author': 'FHS Curd', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '729', 'journal-title': 'J Chem Soc (Resumed)', 'key': '590_CR40', 'unstructured': 'Curd FHS, Rose FL (1946) Synthetic antimalarials. Part X. Some ' 'aryl-diguanide (“-biguanide”) derivatives. J Chem Soc (Resumed) ' '149:729–737', 'volume': '149', 'year': '1946'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/00034983.1945.11685237', 'author': 'FHS Curd', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '208', 'issue': '3-4', 'journal-title': 'Ann Trop Med Parasitol', 'key': '590_CR41', 'unstructured': 'Curd FHS, Davey DG, Rose FL (1945) Studies on synthetic antimalarial ' 'drugs: X—some biguanide derivatives as new types of antimalarial ' 'substances with both therapeutic and causal prophylactic activity. Ann ' 'Trop Med Parasitol 39(3–4):208–216', 'volume': '39', 'year': '1945'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/jm8007807', 'author': 'B Cvek', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '6256', 'issue': '20', 'journal-title': 'J Med Chem', 'key': '590_CR42', 'unstructured': 'Cvek B, Milacic V, Taraba J, Dou QP (2008) Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) ' 'diethyldithiocarbamate complexes show various activities against the ' 'proteasome in breast cancer cells. J Med Chem 51(20):6256–6258', 'volume': '51', 'year': '2008'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mam.2022.101144', 'author': 'N Ćwilichowska', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '101144', 'journal-title': 'Mol Aspects Med', 'key': '590_CR43', 'unstructured': 'Ćwilichowska N, Świderska KW, Dobrzyń A, Drąg M, Poręba M (2022) ' 'Diagnostic and therapeutic potential of protease inhibition. Mol Aspects ' 'Med 88:101144', 'volume': '88', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.7150/ijms.77206', 'author': 'ZA Damanhouri', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '142', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Int J Med Sci', 'key': '590_CR44', 'unstructured': 'Damanhouri ZA, Alkreathy HM, Alharbi FA, Abualhamail H, Ahmad MS (2023) ' 'A review of the impact of pharmacogenetics and metabolomics on the ' 'efficacy of metformin in type 2 diabetes. Int J Med Sci 20(1):142', 'volume': '20', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-018-29058-6', 'author': 'M Debela', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '10705', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Sci Rep', 'key': '590_CR45', 'unstructured': 'Debela M, Magdolen V, Skala W, Elsässer B, Schneider EL, Craik CS, ' 'Goettig P (2018) Structural determinants of specificity and regulation ' 'of activity in the allosteric loop network of human KLK8/neuropsin. Sci ' 'Rep 8(1):10705', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1039/D1DT02499J', 'author': 'C DeLaney', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '12226', 'issue': '35', 'journal-title': 'Dalton Trans', 'key': '590_CR46', 'unstructured': 'DeLaney C, Sheng Y, Pectol DC, Vantansever E, Zhang H, Bhuvanesh N, ' 'Darensbourg MY et al (2021) Zinc thiotropolone combinations as ' 'inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. Dalton Trans ' '50(35):12226–12233', 'volume': '50', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/ptr.7309', 'author': 'A Di Petrillo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '266', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Phytotherapy Res', 'key': '590_CR47', 'unstructured': 'Di Petrillo A, Orrù G, Fais A, Fantini MC (2022) Quercetin and its ' 'derivates as antiviral potentials: a comprehensive review. Phytotherapy ' 'Res 36(1):266–278', 'volume': '36', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0273526', 'author': 'L Di Stefano', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e0273526', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE', 'key': '590_CR48', 'unstructured': 'Di Stefano L, Ogburn EL, Ram M, Scharfstein DO, Li T, Khanal P (2022) ' 'Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine for the treatment of hospitalized ' 'patients with COVID-19: AN individual participant data meta-analysis. ' 'PLoS ONE 17(9):e0273526', 'volume': '17', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41590-021-01091-0', 'author': 'MS Diamond', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '165', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Nat Immunol', 'key': '590_CR49', 'unstructured': 'Diamond MS, Kanneganti TD (2022) Innate immunity: the first line of ' 'defense against SARS-CoV-2. Nat Immunol 23(2):165–176', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.H116.762948', 'author': 'B Ding', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '8531', 'issue': '20', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR50', 'unstructured': 'Ding B, Zhong Q (2017) Zinc deficiency: an unexpected trigger for ' 'autophagy. J Biol Chem 292(20):8531–8532', 'volume': '292', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109796', 'author': 'X Ding', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '109796', 'journal-title': 'Chemico-Biol Interact', 'key': '590_CR51', 'unstructured': 'Ding X, Ye N, Qiu M, Guo H, Li J, Zhou X, Li J et al (2022) Cathepsin B ' 'is a potential therapeutic target for coronavirus disease 2019 patients ' 'with lung adenocarcinoma. Chemico-Biol Interact 353:109796', 'volume': '353', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/molecules24183247', 'author': 'A Djordjevic', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '3247', 'issue': '18', 'journal-title': 'Molecules', 'key': '590_CR52', 'unstructured': 'Djordjevic A, Aaseth J (2019) A review on coordination properties of ' 'thiol-containing chelating agents towards mercury, cadmium, and lead. ' 'Molecules 24(18):3247', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1017/S0007114521002099', 'author': 'D do Nascimento Marreiro', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1172', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Br J Nutr', 'key': '590_CR53', 'unstructured': 'do Nascimento Marreiro D, Cruz KJC, de Oliveira ARS, Morais JBS, de ' 'Souse Melo SR, Dos santos LR, da Silva Dias TM et al (2022) Antiviral ' 'and immunological activity of zinc and possible role in COVID-19. Br J ' 'Nutr 127(8):1172–1179', 'volume': '127', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1085/jgp.202213206', 'author': 'AM Dorward', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'J General Physiol', 'key': '590_CR54', 'unstructured': 'Dorward AM, Stewart AJ, Pitt SJ (2023) The role of Zn2+ in shaping ' 'intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in the heart. J General Physiol. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.202213206', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3844', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': '590_CR166', 'unstructured': 'EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) (2014) ' 'Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for zinc. EFSA J ' '12(10):3844'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/jf301267c', 'author': 'T Eggen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '6929', 'issue': '28', 'journal-title': 'J Agric Food Chem', 'key': '590_CR55', 'unstructured': 'Eggen T, Lillo C (2012) Antidiabetic II drug metformin in plants: uptake ' 'and translocation to edible parts of cereals, oily seeds, beans, tomato, ' 'squash, carrots, and potatoes. J Agric Food Chem 60(28):6929–6935', 'volume': '60', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/00380768.2017.1360750', 'author': 'M Eguchi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '342', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Soil Sci Plant Nutr', 'key': '590_CR56', 'unstructured': 'Eguchi M, Kimura K, Makino A, Ishida H (2017) Autophagy is induced under ' 'Zn limitation and contributes to Zn-limited stress tolerance in ' 'Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Soil Sci Plant Nutr 63(4):342–350', 'volume': '63', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/prp2.698', 'author': 'IA El-Shimy', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol Res Perspect', 'key': '590_CR57', 'unstructured': 'El-Shimy IA, Mohamed MM, Hasan SS, Hadi MA (2021) Targeting host cell ' 'proteases as a potential treatment strategy to limit the spread of ' 'SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract. Pharmacol Res Perspect 9(1):e00698', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.2337/dc22-2539', 'author': 'SM Erickson', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1432', 'issue': '7', 'journal-title': 'Diabetes Care', 'key': '590_CR58', 'unstructured': 'Erickson SM, Fenno SL, Barzilai N, Kuchel G, Bartley JM, Justice JN, ' 'Bramante CT et al (2023) Metformin for treatment of acute COVID-19: ' 'systematic review of clinical trial data against SARS-CoV-2. Diabetes ' 'Care 46(7):1432–1442', 'volume': '46', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/acschembio.8b00064', 'author': 'SJ Eron', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1279', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'ACS Chem Biol', 'key': '590_CR59', 'unstructured': 'Eron SJ, MacPherson DJ, Dagbay KB, Hardy JA (2018) Multiple mechanisms ' 'of zinc-mediated inhibition for the apoptotic caspases-3,-6,-7, and-8. ' 'ACS Chem Biol 13(5):1279–1290', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2018'}, { 'author': 'A Extance', 'first-page': '39', 'journal-title': 'Chem World', 'key': '590_CR60', 'unstructured': 'Extance A (2017) Do hydrogen bonds have covalent character? Chem World ' '14:39', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2017'}, { 'author': 'G Ey', 'first-page': '287', 'issue': '7', 'journal-title': 'J Philippine Med Assoc', 'key': '590_CR61', 'unstructured': 'Ey G (1950) Flumamine, a new synthetic analgesic and anti-flu drug. J ' 'Philippine Med Assoc 26(7):287–293', 'volume': '26', 'year': '1950'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0031-6989(74)80019-6', 'author': 'GM Fara', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '117', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol Res Commun', 'key': '590_CR62', 'unstructured': 'Fara GM, Lugaro G, Galli MG, Giannattasio G (1974) Antiviral activity of ' 'selected biguanide derivatives. Pharmacol Res Commun 6(2):117–126', 'volume': '6', 'year': '1974'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ph16060834', 'author': 'B Farkaš', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '834', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'Pharmaceuticals', 'key': '590_CR63', 'unstructured': 'Farkaš B, Minneci M, Misevicius M, Rozas I (2023) A tale of two ' 'proteases: MPro and TMPRSS2 as targets for COVID-19 therapies. ' 'Pharmaceuticals 16(6):834', 'volume': '16', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/mtomcs/mfac076', 'author': 'G Firth', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'mfac076', 'issue': '10', 'journal-title': 'Metallomics', 'key': '590_CR64', 'unstructured': 'Firth G, Yu Z, Bartnicka JJ, Parker D, Kim J, Sunassee K, Blower PJ et ' 'al (2022) Imaging zinc trafficking in vivo by positron emission ' 'tomography with zinc-62. Metallomics 14(10):mfac076', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41574-023-00833-4', 'author': 'M Foretz', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'Nat Rev Endocrinol', 'key': '590_CR65', 'unstructured': 'Foretz M, Guigas B, Viollet B (2023) Metformin: update on mechanisms of ' 'action and repurposing potential. Nat Rev Endocrinol 19:1–17', 'volume': '19', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126515', 'author': 'JH Freeland-Graves', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'J Trace Elements Med Biol', 'key': '590_CR66', 'unstructured': 'Freeland-Graves JH, Sachdev PK, Binderberger AZ, Sosanya ME (2020) ' 'Global diversity of dietary intakes and standards for zinc, iron, and ' 'copper. J Trace Elements Med Biol 61:126515', 'volume': '61', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/ic900276g', 'author': 'M Frezza', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '5928', 'issue': '13', 'journal-title': 'Inorg Chem', 'key': '590_CR67', 'unstructured': 'Frezza M, Hindo SS, Tomco D, Allard MM, Cui QC, Heeg MJ, Verani CN et al ' '(2009) Comparative activities of nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of ' 'asymmetric [NN′ O] ligands as 26S proteasome inhibitors. Inorg Chem ' '48(13):5928–5937', 'volume': '48', 'year': '2009'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s11897-022-00581-y', 'author': 'LR Gagnon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '458', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'Current Heart Fail Rep', 'key': '590_CR68', 'unstructured': 'Gagnon LR, Sadasivan C, Yogasundaram H, Oudit GY (2022) Review of ' 'hydroxychloroquine cardiotoxicity: lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic. ' 'Current Heart Fail Rep 19(6):458–466', 'volume': '19', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.5603/CJ.a2021.0028', 'author': 'A Gasecka', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '353', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Cardiol J', 'key': '590_CR69', 'unstructured': 'Gasecka A, Pruc M, Kukula K, Gilis-Malinowska N, Filipiak KJ, ' 'Jaguszewski MJ, Szarpak L (2021) Post-COVID-19 heart syndrome. Cardiol J ' '28(2):353–354', 'volume': '28', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00253-021-11094-4', 'author': 'A Gasmi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1333', 'journal-title': 'Appl Microbiol Biotechnol', 'key': '590_CR70', 'unstructured': 'Gasmi A, Peana M, Noor S, Lysiuk R, Menzel A, Gasmi Benahmed A, ' 'Bjørklund G (2021) Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment ' 'of COVID-19: the never-ending story. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ' '105:1333–1343', 'volume': '105', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.2967/jnumed.116.177774', 'author': 'LC Gormsen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1920', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'J Nuclear Med', 'key': '590_CR72', 'unstructured': 'Gormsen LC, Sundelin EI, Jensen JB, Vendelbo MH, Jakobsen S, Munk OL, ' 'Jessen N et al (2016) In vivo imaging of human 11C-metformin in ' 'peripheral organs: dosimetry, biodistribution, and kinetic analyses. J ' 'Nuclear Med 57(12):1920–1926', 'volume': '57', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciac903', 'author': 'M Goto', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1245', 'issue': '7', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'key': '590_CR73', 'unstructured': 'Goto M, Perencevich EN (2023) Metformin and infections: what is the next ' 'step in this decades-long story? Clin Infect Dis 76(7):1245–1246', 'volume': '76', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1039/D1CC02956H', 'author': 'D Grifagni', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7910', 'issue': '64', 'journal-title': 'Chem Commun', 'key': '590_CR74', 'unstructured': 'Grifagni D, Calderone V, Giuntini S, Cantini F, Fragai M, Banci L (2021) ' 'SARS-CoV-2 M pro inhibition by a zinc ion: structural features and hints ' 'for drug design. Chem Commun 57(64):7910–7913', 'volume': '57', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jmb.2019.09.005', 'author': 'AS Gross', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '28', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'J Mol Biol', 'key': '590_CR75', 'unstructured': 'Gross AS, Graef M (2020) Mechanisms of autophagy in metabolic stress ' 'response. J Mol Biol 432(1):28–52', 'volume': '432', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113726', 'author': 'O Grytsai', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Med Chem', 'key': '590_CR76', 'unstructured': 'Grytsai O, Myrgorodska I, Rocchi S, Ronco C, Benhida R (2021) Biguanides ' 'drugs: past success stories and promising future for drug discovery. Eur ' 'J Med Chem 224:113726', 'volume': '224', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3762/bjoc.17.82', 'author': 'O Grytsai', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1001', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Beilstein J Org Chem', 'key': '590_CR77', 'unstructured': 'Grytsai O, Ronco C, Benhida R (2021) Synthetic accesses to biguanide ' 'compounds. Beilstein J Org Chem 17(1):1001–1040', 'volume': '17', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63056-8', 'author': 'ME Guicciardi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2045', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'Am J Pathol', 'key': '590_CR78', 'unstructured': 'Guicciardi ME, Miyoshi H, Bronk SF, Gores GJ (2001) Cathepsin B knockout ' 'mice are resistant to tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated hepatocyte ' 'apoptosis and liver injury: implications for therapeutic applications. ' 'Am J Pathol 159(6):2045–2054', 'volume': '159', 'year': '2001'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/24701556.2020.1800033', 'author': 'O Gungor', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '627', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Inorg Nano-Metal Chem', 'key': '590_CR79', 'unstructured': 'Gungor O, Kurtar SNK, Koçer F, Kose M (2020) A guanylurea ligand and its ' 'Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes: antibacterial activities and DNA ' 'binding properties. Inorg Nano-Metal Chem 51(5):627–635', 'volume': '51', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fmolb.2022.895887', 'author': 'JH Ha', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Front Mol Biosci', 'key': '590_CR80', 'unstructured': 'Ha JH, Prela O, Carpizo DR, Loh SN (2022) p53 and zinc: a malleable ' 'relationship. Front Mol Biosci 9:895887', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.exger.2007.12.002', 'author': 'H Haase', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '394', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Exp Gerontol', 'key': '590_CR81', 'unstructured': 'Haase H, Overbeck S, Rink L (2008) Zinc supplementation for the ' 'treatment or prevention of disease: current status and future ' 'perspectives. Exp Gerontol 43(5):394–408', 'volume': '43', 'year': '2008'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu14040883', 'author': 'D Haile', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '883', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '590_CR82', 'unstructured': 'Haile D, Brown KH, McDonald CM, Luo H, Jarvis M, Teta I, Engle-Stone R ' 'et al (2022) Applying zinc nutrient reference values as proposed by ' 'different authorities results in large differences in the estimated ' 'prevalence of inadequate zinc intake by young children and women and in ' 'Cameroon. Nutrients 14(4):883', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms24076561', 'author': 'AG Hall', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '6561', 'issue': '7', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR83', 'unstructured': 'Hall AG, King JC (2023) The molecular basis for zinc bioavailability. ' 'Int J Mol Sci 24(7):6561', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2023'}, { 'author': 'KM Hambidge', 'first-page': '55', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'J Trace Elements Electrol Health Dis', 'key': '590_CR84', 'unstructured': 'Hambidge KM, Goodall MJ, Stall C, Pritts J (1989) Post-prandial and ' 'daily changes in plasma zinc. J Trace Elements Electrol Health Dis ' '3(1):55–57', 'volume': '3', 'year': '1989'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/bi0504761', 'author': 'YS Han', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '10349', 'issue': '30', 'journal-title': 'Biochemistry', 'key': '590_CR85', 'unstructured': 'Han YS, Chang GG, Juo CG, Lee HJ, Yeh SH, Hsu JTA, Chen X (2005) ' 'Papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) from severe acute respiratory syndrome ' 'coronavirus (SARS-CoV): expression, purification, characterization, and ' 'inhibition. Biochemistry 44(30):10349–10359', 'volume': '44', 'year': '2005'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jphs.2021.11.007', 'author': 'T Hara', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '221', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'J Pharmacol Sci', 'key': '590_CR86', 'unstructured': 'Hara T, Yoshigai E, Ohashi T, Fukada T (2022) Zinc transporters as ' 'potential therapeutic targets: an updated review. J Pharmacol Sci ' '148(2):221–228', 'volume': '148', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms24087152', 'author': 'T Hara', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7152', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR87', 'unstructured': 'Hara T, Yoshigai E, Ohashi T, Fukada T (2023) Zinc in cardiovascular ' 'functions and diseases: epidemiology and molecular mechanisms for ' 'therapeutic development. Int J Mol Sci 24(8):7152', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.omtn.2021.10.016', 'author': 'R Hashimoto', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1107', 'journal-title': 'Mol Therapy-Nucleic Acids', 'key': '590_CR88', 'unstructured': 'Hashimoto R, Sakamoto A, Deguchi S, Yi R, Sano E, Hotta A, Takayama K ' '(2021) Dual inhibition of TMPRSS2 and Cathepsin B prevents SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection in iPS cells. Mol Therapy-Nucleic Acids 26:1107–1114', 'volume': '26', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02051.x', 'author': 'MJ Haydon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '499', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'New Phytol', 'key': '590_CR89', 'unstructured': 'Haydon MJ, Cobbett CS (2007) Transporters of ligands for essential metal ' 'ions in plants. New Phytol 174(3):499–506', 'volume': '174', 'year': '2007'}, { 'DOI': '10.7150/ijbs.72544', 'author': 'W He', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4690', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'Int J Biol Sci', 'key': '590_CR90', 'unstructured': 'He W, Gao Y, Zhou J, Shi Y, Xia D, Shen HM (2022) Friend or Foe? ' 'Implication of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in SARS-CoV-2 infection ' 'and COVID-19. Int J Biol Sci 18(12):4690', 'volume': '18', 'year': '2022'}, { 'author': 'T Horie', 'first-page': '8533', 'journal-title': 'J Adv Nutr Hum Metabol', 'key': '590_CR91', 'unstructured': 'Horie T, Kawamata T, Ohsumi Y (2017) Recycling of trace metals by the ' 'bulk autophagy in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Adv ' 'Nutr Hum Metabol 3:8533', 'volume': '3', 'year': '2017'}, { 'key': '590_CR92', 'unstructured': 'Hrvatin L (2021) The effect of metal ions and biguanide complexes on the ' 'activity of cathepsin K (Doctoral dissertation, University of Ljubljana, ' 'Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology)'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fbioe.2022.780751', 'author': 'Y Huang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '780751', 'journal-title': 'Front Bioeng Biotechnol', 'key': '590_CR93', 'unstructured': 'Huang Y, Li S, Huang S, Tu J, Chen X, Xiao L, Yuan X (2022) ' 'Comprehensive and integrative analysis of two novel SARS-CoV-2 entry ' 'associated proteases CTSB and CTSL in healthy individuals and cancer ' 'patients. Front Bioeng Biotechnol 10:780751', 'volume': '10', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fendo.2021.587801', 'author': 'S Ibrahim', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '625', 'journal-title': 'Front Endocrinol', 'key': '590_CR94', 'unstructured': 'Ibrahim S, Lowe JR, Bramante CT, Shah S, Klatt NR, Sherwood N, Ingraham ' 'N et al (2021) Metformin and Covid-19: focused review of mechanisms and ' 'current literature suggesting benefit. Front Endocrinol 12:625', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s10534-022-00386-5', 'author': 'K Ioannou', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '639', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Biometals', 'key': '590_CR95', 'unstructured': 'Ioannou K, Vlasiou MC (2022) Metal-based complexes against SARS-CoV-2. ' 'Biometals 35(4):639–652', 'volume': '35', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1749-6632.1965.tb12582.x', 'author': 'N Ishida', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '460', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Ann N Y Acad Sci', 'key': '590_CR96', 'unstructured': 'Ishida N (1965) Virus inhibitory activity of biguanides and related ' 'compounds. Ann N Y Acad Sci 130(1):460–468', 'volume': '130', 'year': '1965'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms24097734', 'author': 'T Ivanova', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7734', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR97', 'unstructured': 'Ivanova T, Mariienko Y, Mehterov N, Kazakova M, Sbirkov Y, Todorova K, ' 'Sarafian V et al (2023) Autophagy and SARS-CoV-2-old players in new ' 'games. Int J Mol Sci 24(9):7734', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pntd.0008895', 'author': 'MP Joachimiak', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e0008895', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'PLoS Neglect Trop Dis', 'key': '590_CR98', 'unstructured': 'Joachimiak MP (2021) Zinc against COVID-19? Symptom surveillance and ' 'deficiency risk groups. PLoS Neglect Trop Dis 15(1):e0008895', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.014', 'author': 'D Jothimani', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '343', 'journal-title': 'Int J Infect Dis', 'key': '590_CR99', 'unstructured': 'Jothimani D, Kailasam E, Danielraj S, Nallathambi B, Ramachandran H, ' 'Sekar P, Rela M et al (2020) COVID-19: poor outcomes in patients with ' 'zinc deficiency. Int J Infect Dis 100:343–349', 'volume': '100', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100320', 'author': 'T Kambe', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '100320', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chemistry', 'key': '590_CR100', 'unstructured': 'Kambe T, Taylor KM, Fu D (2021) Zinc transporters and their functional ' 'integration in mammalian cells. J Biol Chemistry 296:100320', 'volume': '296', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s12872-022-02845-w', 'author': 'AM Kamel', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '405', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'BMC Cardiovasc Disorders', 'key': '590_CR101', 'unstructured': 'Kamel AM, Sabry N, Farid S (2022) Effect of metformin on left ' 'ventricular mass and functional parameters in non-diabetic patients: a ' 'meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMC Cardiovasc Disorders ' '22(1):405', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/cbic.202100186', 'author': 'J Karges', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2600', 'issue': '16', 'journal-title': 'ChemBioChem', 'key': '590_CR102', 'unstructured': 'Karges J, Cohen SM (2021) Metal complexes as antiviral agents for ' 'SARS-CoV-2. ChemBioChem 22(16):2600–2607', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113378', 'author': 'D Kathuria', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Med Chem', 'key': '590_CR103', 'unstructured': 'Kathuria D, Raul AD, Wanjari P, Bharatam PV (2021) Biguanides: Species ' 'with versatile therapeutic applications. Eur J Med Chem 219:113378', 'volume': '219', 'year': '2021'}, { 'author': 'D Kaul', 'first-page': '807', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'key': '590_CR104', 'unstructured': 'Kaul D (2022) Zinc for patients with COVID-19? Reviewing: Ben Abdallah S ' 'et al. Twice-daily oral zinc in the treatment of patients with ' 'coronavirus disease 2019: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. ' 'Clin Infect Dis 76:807', 'volume': '76', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/pharmaceutics14050899', 'author': 'ON Kavanagh', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '899', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Pharmaceutics', 'key': '590_CR105', 'unstructured': 'Kavanagh ON, Bhattacharya S, Marchetti L, Elmes R, O’Sullivan F, ' 'Farragher JP, Walker GM et al (2022) Hydroxychloroquine does not ' 'function as a direct zinc ionophore. Pharmaceutics 14(5):899', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.M116.762948', 'author': 'T Kawamata', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '8520', 'issue': '20', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR106', 'unstructured': 'Kawamata T, Horie T, Matsunami M, Sasaki M, Ohsumi Y (2017) Zinc ' 'starvation induces autophagy in yeast. J Biol Chem 292(20):8520–8530', 'volume': '292', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.04.017', 'author': 'I Kim', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '229', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Exp Cell Res', 'key': '590_CR107', 'unstructured': 'Kim I, Kim CH, Kim JH, Lee J, Choi JJ, Chen ZA, Ahn YS et al (2004) ' 'Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and zinc inhibit proteasome-dependent ' 'proteolysis. Exp Cell Res 298(1):229–238', 'volume': '298', 'year': '2004'}, { 'DOI': '10.3904/kjim.2021.363', 'author': 'JW Kim', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '13', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Korean J Internal Med', 'key': '590_CR108', 'unstructured': 'Kim JW, Choe JY, Park SH (2022) Metformin and its therapeutic ' 'applications in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease. Korean J ' 'Internal Med 37(1):13', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms23158811', 'author': 'SY Kim', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '8811', 'issue': '15', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR109', 'unstructured': 'Kim SY, Lee JH, Kim SA (2022) Zinc deficiency induces autophagy in HT-22 ' 'mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line. Int J Mol Sci 23(15):8811', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1042/BJ20050523', 'author': 'P Kiss', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '301', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Biochem J', 'key': '590_CR110', 'unstructured': 'Kiss P, Szabó Á, Hunyadi-Gulyás É, Medzihradszky KF, Lipinszki Z, Pál M, ' 'Udvardy A (2005) Zn2+-induced reversible dissociation of subunit ' 'Rpn10/p54 of the Drosophila 26 S proteasome. Biochem J 391(2):301–310', 'volume': '391', 'year': '2005'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/14756366.2022.2108417', 'author': 'J Kladnik', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2158', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'J Enzyme Inhibit Med Chem', 'key': '590_CR111', 'unstructured': 'Kladnik J, Dolinar A, Kljun J, Perea D, Grau-Expósito J, Genescà M, ' 'Turel I et al (2022) Zinc pyrithione is a potent inhibitor of PLPro and ' 'cathepsin L enzymes with ex vivo inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 entry and ' 'replication. J Enzyme Inhibit Med Chem 37(1):2158–2168', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/acs.chemrev.7b00120', 'author': 'T Klein', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1137', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Chem Rev', 'key': '590_CR112', 'unstructured': 'Klein T, Eckhard U, Dufour A, Solis N, Overall CM (2018) Proteolytic ' 'cleavage mechanisms, function, and “Omic” approaches for a ' 'near-ubiquitous posttranslational modification. Chem Rev ' '118(3):1137–1168', 'volume': '118', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.15252/embj.2020106275', 'author': 'T Klemm', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e106275', 'issue': '18', 'journal-title': 'EMBO J', 'key': '590_CR113', 'unstructured': 'Klemm T, Ebert G, Calleja DJ, Allison CC, Richardson LW, Bernardini JP, ' 'Komander D et al (2020) Mechanism and inhibition of the papain-like ' 'protease, PLpro, of SARS-CoV-2. EMBO J 39(18):e106275', 'volume': '39', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.tibs.2020.08.011', 'author': 'A Kocyła', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '64', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Trends Biochem Sci', 'key': '590_CR114', 'unstructured': 'Kocyła A, Tran JB, Krężel A (2021) Galvanization of protein–protein ' 'interactions in a dynamic zinc interactome. Trends Biochem Sci ' '46(1):64–79', 'volume': '46', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms21082941', 'author': 'H Kodama', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2941', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR115', 'unstructured': 'Kodama H, Tanaka M, Naito Y, Katayama K, Moriyama M (2020) Japan’s ' 'practical guidelines for zinc deficiency with a particular focus on ' 'taste disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, and liver cirrhosis. Int J ' 'Mol Sci 21(8):2941', 'volume': '21', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1124/pr.118.015578', 'author': 'H Koepsell', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '253', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol Rev', 'key': '590_CR116', 'unstructured': 'Koepsell H (2020) Organic cation transporters in health and disease. ' 'Pharmacol Rev 72(1):253–319', 'volume': '72', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.09.019', 'author': 'M Koren-Michowitz', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '358', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Am J Hypertension', 'key': '590_CR117', 'unstructured': 'Koren-Michowitz M, Dishy V, Zaidenstein R, Yona O, Berman S, Weissgarten ' 'J, Golik A (2005) The effect of losartan and ' 'losartan/hydrochlorothiazide fixed-combination on magnesium, zinc, and ' 'nitric oxide metabolism in hypertensive patients: a prospective ' 'open-label study. Am J Hypertension 18(3):358–363', 'volume': '18', 'year': '2005'}, { 'author': 'MH Kown', 'first-page': '111', 'issue': '33', 'journal-title': 'Circulation', 'key': '590_CR118', 'unstructured': 'Kown MH, Van der Steenhoven T, Blankenberg FG, Hoyt G, Berry GJ, Tait ' 'JF, Robbins RC et al (2000) Zinc-mediated reduction of apoptosis in ' 'cardiac allografts. Circulation 102(33):111–228', 'volume': '102', 'year': '2000'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/978-1-4939-9030-6_18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': '590_CR119', 'unstructured': 'Kozlyuk N, Monteith AJ, Garcia V, Damo SM, Skaar EP, Chazin WJ (2019) ' 'S100 proteins in the innate immune response to pathogens. ' 'Calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand superfamily: from basics to ' 'medical applications, pp 275-290'}, { 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.01543-08', 'author': 'BM Krenn', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '58', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'J Virol', 'key': '590_CR120', 'unstructured': 'Krenn BM, Gaudernak E, Holzer B, Lanke K, Van Kuppeveld FJM, Seipelt J ' '(2009) Antiviral activity of the zinc ionophores pyrithione and ' 'hinokitiol against picornavirus infections. J Virol 83(1):58–64', 'volume': '83', 'year': '2009'}, { 'author': 'I Kukic', 'first-page': '3094', 'issue': '14', 'journal-title': 'J Cell Sci', 'key': '590_CR121', 'unstructured': 'Kukic I, Kelleher SL, Kiselyov K (2014) Zn2+ efflux through lysosomal ' 'exocytosis prevents Zn2+-induced toxicity. J Cell Sci 127(14):3094–3103', 'volume': '127', 'year': '2014'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100269', 'author': 'E Kuliyev', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '100269', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR122', 'unstructured': 'Kuliyev E, Zhang C, Sui D, Hu J (2021) Zinc transporter mutations linked ' 'to acrodermatitis enteropathica disrupt function and cause ' 'mistrafficking. J Biol Chem 296:100269', 'volume': '296', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu15020358', 'author': 'YJ Kwon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '358', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '590_CR123', 'unstructured': 'Kwon YJ, Lee HS, Park G, Yang J, Kim HM, Lee JW (2023) Dietary zinc ' 'intake and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Korean middle-aged ' 'and older adults. Nutrients 15(2):358', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.diabet.2020.101216', 'author': 'JD Lalau', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '101216', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Diab Metab', 'key': '590_CR124', 'unstructured': 'Lalau JD, Al-Salameh A, Hadjadj S, Goronflot T, Wiernsperger N, Pichelin ' 'M, Cariou B (2021) Metformin use is associated with a reduced risk of ' 'mortality in patients with diabetes hospitalised for COVID-19. Diab ' 'Metab 47(5):101216', 'volume': '47', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.M807947200', 'author': 'CC Lee', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7646', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR125', 'unstructured': 'Lee CC, Kuo CJ, Ko TP, Hsu MF, Tsui YC, Chang SC, Wang AHJ (2009) ' 'Structural basis of inhibition specificities of 3C and 3C-like proteases ' 'by zinc-coordinating and peptidomimetic compounds. J Biol Chem ' '284(12):7646–7655', 'volume': '284', 'year': '2009'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41467-022-32854-4', 'author': 'J Lee', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '5196', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Nat Commun', 'key': '590_CR126', 'unstructured': 'Lee J, Kenward C, Worrall LJ, Vuckovic M, Gentile F, Ton AT, Paetzel M ' 'et al (2022) X-ray crystallographic characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 ' 'main protease polyprotein cleavage sites essential for viral processing ' 'and maturation. Nat Commun 13(1):5196', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3892/wasj.2020.68', 'author': 'S Lehrer', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'World Acad Sci J', 'key': '590_CR127', 'unstructured': 'Lehrer S (2020) Inhaled biguanides and mTOR inhibition for influenza and ' 'coronavirus. World Acad Sci J 2(3):1–1', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-8587(23)00159-6', 'author': 'RD Leslie', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '848', 'issue': '11', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Diab Endocrinol', 'key': '590_CR128', 'unstructured': 'Leslie RD, Ma RCW, Franks PW, Nadeau KJ, Pearson ER, Redondo MJ (2023) ' 'Understanding diabetes heterogeneity: key steps towards precision ' 'medicine in diabetes. Lancet Diab Endocrinol 11(11):848–60', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/app10124118', 'author': 'R Leuci', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4118', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'Appl Sci', 'key': '590_CR129', 'unstructured': 'Leuci R, Brunetti L, Laghezza A, Loiodice F, Tortorella P, Piemontese L ' '(2020) Importance of biometals as targets in medicinal chemistry: an ' 'overview about the role of zinc(II) chelating agents. Appl Sci ' '10(12):4118', 'volume': '10', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00118-4', 'author': 'JA Lewnard', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '806', 'issue': '7', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis', 'key': '590_CR130', 'unstructured': 'Lewnard JA, McLaughlin JM, Malden D, Hong V, Puzniak L, Ackerson BK, ' 'Tartof SY et al (2023) Effectiveness of nirmatrelvir–ritonavir in ' 'preventing hospital admissions and deaths in people with COVID-19: a ' 'cohort study in a large US health-care system. Lancet Infect Dis ' '23(7):806–15', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1159/000531432', 'author': 'JZ Li', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '374', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Cardiology', 'key': '590_CR131', 'unstructured': 'Li JZ, Li YR (2023) Cardiovascular protection by metformin: latest ' 'advances in basic and clinical research. Cardiology 148(4):374–84', 'volume': '148', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/17512433.2022.2118714', 'author': 'S Li', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1107', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol', 'key': '590_CR132', 'unstructured': 'Li S, Xu B, Fan S, Kang B, Deng L, Chen D, Zhou JC et al (2022) Effects ' 'of single-nucleotide polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and ' 'pharmacodynamics of metformin. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 15(9):1107–1117', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s40265-021-01665-0', 'author': 'T Li', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '311', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Drugs', 'key': '590_CR133', 'unstructured': 'Li T, Providencia R, Jiang W, Liu M, Yu L, Gu C, Ma H et al (2022) ' 'Association of metformin with the mortality and incidence of ' 'cardiovascular events in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular ' 'diseases. Drugs 82(3):311–322', 'volume': '82', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41573-023-00672-y', 'author': 'G Li', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'Nat Rev Drug Discov', 'key': '590_CR134', 'unstructured': 'Li G, Hilgenfeld R, Whitley R, De Clercq E (2023) Therapeutic strategies ' 'for COVID-19: progress and lessons learned. Nat Rev Drug Discov 22:1–27', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.xphs.2017.04.078', 'author': 'X Liang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2245', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'J Pharm Sci', 'key': '590_CR135', 'unstructured': 'Liang X, Giacomini KM (2017) Transporters involved in metformin ' 'pharmacokinetics and treatment response. J Pharm Sci 106(9):2245–2250', 'volume': '106', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.79.24.15199-15208.2005', 'author': 'HA Lindner', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '15199', 'issue': '24', 'journal-title': 'J Virol', 'key': '590_CR136', 'unstructured': 'Lindner HA, Fotouhi-Ardakani N, Lytvyn V, Lachance P, Sulea T, Ménard R ' '(2005) The papain-like protease from the severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus is a deubiquitinating enzyme. J Virol ' '79(24):15199–15208', 'volume': '79', 'year': '2005'}, { 'DOI': '10.18632/oncoscience.167', 'author': 'N Liu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '457', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Oncoscience', 'key': '590_CR137', 'unstructured': 'Liu N, Huang H, Dou QP, Liu J (2015) Inhibition of 19S ' 'proteasome-associated deubiquitinases by metal-containing compounds. ' 'Oncoscience 2(5):457', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2015'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/BF00364857', 'author': 'JM Llobet', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '321', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Arch Toxicol', 'key': '590_CR138', 'unstructured': 'Llobet JM, Domingo JL, Corbella J (1988) Antidotes for zinc intoxication ' 'in mice. Arch Toxicol 61(4):321–323', 'volume': '61', 'year': '1988'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0167-5273(96)02775-1', 'author': 'TD Lockwood', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '9', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Int J Cardiol', 'key': '590_CR139', 'unstructured': 'Lockwood TD (1996) Opposing actions of cholinergic agonist and ' 'trinitroglycerin on net vascular resistance in perfused rat heart. Int J ' 'Cardiol 57(1):9–19', 'volume': '57', 'year': '1996'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00436-006-0239-3', 'author': 'TD Lockwood', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '175', 'journal-title': 'Parasitol Res', 'key': '590_CR140', 'unstructured': 'Lockwood TD (2006) Responsiveness of parasite Cys His proteases to iron ' 'redox. Parasitol Res 100:175–181', 'volume': '100', 'year': '2006'}, { 'DOI': '10.1517/14728221003774135', 'author': 'TD Lockwood', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '467', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Expert Opin Therap Targets', 'key': '590_CR141', 'unstructured': 'Lockwood TD (2010) The lysosome among targets of metformin: new ' 'anti-inflammatory uses for an old drug? Expert Opin Therap Targets ' '14(5):467–478', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.1039/c2mt20156a', 'author': 'TD Lockwood', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '110', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Metallomics', 'key': '590_CR142', 'unstructured': 'Lockwood TD (2013) Lysosomal metal, redox and proton cycles influencing ' 'the CysHis cathepsin reaction. Metallomics 5(2):110–124', 'volume': '5', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s10534-019-00197-1', 'author': 'TD Lockwood', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '575', 'journal-title': 'Biometals', 'key': '590_CR143', 'unstructured': 'Lockwood TD (2019) Biguanide is a modifiable pharmacophore for ' 'recruitment of endogenous Zn 2+ to inhibit cysteinyl cathepsins: review ' 'and implications. Biometals 32:575–593', 'volume': '32', 'year': '2019'}, { 'key': '590_CR144', 'unstructured': 'Lofts S (2009) Speciation of pyrithione in freshwaters: a report'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.R800035200', 'author': 'C López-Otín', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '30433', 'issue': '45', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR145', 'unstructured': 'López-Otín C, Bond JS (2008) Proteases: multifunctional enzymes in life ' 'and disease. J Biol Chem 283(45):30433–30437', 'volume': '283', 'year': '2008'}, { 'DOI': '10.1073/pnas.0914008107', 'author': 'Y Lu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1811', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Proc Natl Acad Sci', 'key': '590_CR146', 'unstructured': 'Lu Y (2010) Metal ions as matchmakers for proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci ' '107(5):1811–1812', 'volume': '107', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fchem.2021.819165', 'author': 'Z Lv', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1221', 'journal-title': 'Front Chem', 'key': '590_CR147', 'unstructured': 'Lv Z, Cano KE, Jia L, Drag M, Huang TT, Olsen SK (2022) Targeting ' 'SARS-CoV-2 proteases for COVID-19 antiviral development. Front Chem ' '9:1221', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0282210', 'author': 'Z Ma', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE', 'key': '590_CR148', 'unstructured': 'Ma Z, Krishnamurthy M (2023) Is metformin use associated with low ' 'mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus hospitalized for ' 'COVID-19? a multivariable and propensity score-adjusted meta-analysis. ' 'PLoS ONE 18(2):e0282210', 'volume': '18', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12030762', 'author': 'M Maares', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '762', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '590_CR149', 'unstructured': 'Maares M, Haase H (2020) A guide to human zinc absorption: general ' 'overview and recent advances of in vitro intestinal models. Nutrients ' '12(3):762', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu14071407', 'author': 'M Maares', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1407', 'issue': '7', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '590_CR150', 'unstructured': 'Maares M, Hackler J, Haupt A, Heller RA, Bachmann M, Diegmann J, Haase H ' 'et al (2022) Free zinc as a predictive marker for COVID-19 mortality ' 'risk. Nutrients 14(7):1407', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/archdermatol.2012.435', 'author': 'JB Macdonald', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '961', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Arch Dermatol', 'key': '590_CR151', 'unstructured': 'Macdonald JB, Connolly SM, DiCaudo DJ (2012) Think zinc deficiency: ' 'acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica due to poor diet and common ' 'medications. Arch Dermatol 148(8):961–963', 'volume': '148', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/acsptsci.0c00093', 'author': 'BK Maiti', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1017', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci', 'key': '590_CR152', 'unstructured': 'Maiti BK (2020) Can papain-like protease inhibitors halt SARS-CoV-2 ' 'replication? ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 3(5):1017–1019', 'volume': '3', 'year': '2020'}, { 'author': 'M Marzi', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'BioMed Res Int', 'key': '590_CR153', 'unstructured': 'Marzi M, Vakil MK, Bahmanyar M, Zarenezhad E (2022) Paxlovid: mechanism ' 'of action, synthesis, and in silico study. BioMed Res Int 2022:1–16', 'volume': '2022', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00190', 'author': 'T Marzo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1067', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'ACS Med Chem Lett', 'key': '590_CR154', 'unstructured': 'Marzo T, Messori L (2020) A role for metal-based drugs in fighting ' 'COVID-19 infection? The case of auranofin. ACS Med Chem Lett ' '11(6):1067–1068', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/cc049953+', 'author': 'S Mayer', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '776', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'J Comb Chem', 'key': '590_CR155', 'unstructured': 'Mayer S, Daigle DM, Brown ED, Khatri J, Organ MG (2004) An expedient and ' 'facile one-step synthesis of a biguanide library by microwave ' 'irradiation coupled with simple product filtration. Inhibitors of ' 'dihydrofolate reductase. J Comb Chem 6(5):776–782', 'volume': '6', 'year': '2004'}, { 'author': 'R Mehrotra', 'first-page': '100104', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Med Chem Rep', 'key': '590_CR156', 'unstructured': 'Mehrotra R, Shukla SN, Gaur P (2023) Metallo-antiviral aspirants: Answer ' 'to the upcoming virus outbreak. Eur J Med Chem Rep 8:100104', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1155/2022/4352484', 'author': 'H Meng', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4352484', 'journal-title': 'Cardiol Res Pract', 'key': '590_CR157', 'unstructured': 'Meng H, Ruan J, Chen Y, Yan Z, Meng X, Li X, Yang P et al (2022) Serum ' 'zinc ion concentration associated with coronary heart disease: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiol Res Pract 2022:4352484', 'volume': '2022', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2018.02942', 'author': 'M Miyakoda', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2942', 'journal-title': 'Front Immunol', 'key': '590_CR158', 'unstructured': 'Miyakoda M, Bayarsaikhan G, Kimura D, Akbari M, Udono H, Yui K (2018) ' 'Metformin promotes the protection of mice infected with Plasmodium ' 'yoelii independently of γδ T cell expansion. Front Immunol 9:2942', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1152/ajpgi.00405.2015', 'author': 'Y Miyoshi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '105', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol', 'key': '590_CR159', 'unstructured': 'Miyoshi Y, Tanabe S, Suzuki T (2016) Cellular zinc is required for ' 'intestinal epithelial barrier maintenance via the regulation of ' 'claudin-3 and occludin expression. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver ' 'Physiol 311(1):105–116', 'volume': '311', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.3897/pharmacia.68.e72080', 'author': 'JA Mohammad', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '845', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacia', 'key': '590_CR160', 'unstructured': 'Mohammad JA, Almulathanon AA, Fathi FH (2021) Assessment of the effects ' 'of metformin and glibenclamide on the concentration of selected trace ' 'elements in type 2 diabetic patients. Pharmacia 68(4):845–849', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.2174/0929867328666210526111318', 'author': 'P Müller', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '635', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Current Med Chem', 'key': '590_CR161', 'unstructured': 'Müller P, Maus H, Hammerschmidt SJ, Knaff PM, Mailänder V, Schirmeister ' 'T, Kersten C (2022) Interfering with host proteases in SARS-CoV-2 entry ' 'as a promising therapeutic strategy. Current Med Chem 29(4):635–665', 'volume': '29', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/acsomega.9b02783', 'author': 'B Nespor', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1789', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'ACS Omega', 'key': '590_CR162', 'unstructured': 'Nespor B, Andrianova A, Pollack S, Pfau C, Arifuzzaman M, Islam N, ' 'Hossain K et al (2020) Metformin uptake and translocation in chickpeas: ' 'determination using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. ACS Omega ' '5(4):1789–1795', 'volume': '5', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1515/BC.2009.065', 'author': 'NM Ng', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '401', 'issue': '5–6', 'journal-title': 'Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR163', 'unstructured': 'Ng NM, Pike RN, Boyd SE (2009) Subsite cooperativity in protease ' 'specificity. Biol Chem 390(5–6):401–407', 'volume': '390', 'year': '2009'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms23168993', 'author': 'M Novinec', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '8993', 'issue': '16', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR164', 'unstructured': 'Novinec M, Bembič P, Janković M, Kisilak M, Kljun J, Turel I (2022) ' 'Kinetic characterization of cerium and gallium ions as inhibitors of ' 'cysteine cathepsins L, K, and S. Int J Mol Sci 23(16):8993', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2022'}, { 'author': 'J Nriagu', 'first-page': '1', 'key': '590_CR165', 'unstructured': 'Nriagu J (2007) Zinc toxicity in humans. School of Public Health, ' 'University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, pp 1–7', 'volume-title': 'Zinc toxicity in humans', 'year': '2007'}, { 'DOI': '10.1172/JCI72325', 'author': 'TV O’Halloran', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4136', 'issue': '10', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Investig', 'key': '590_CR167', 'unstructured': 'O’Halloran TV, Kebede M, Philips SJ, Attie AD (2013) Zinc, insulin, and ' 'the liver: a ménage à trois. J Clin Investig 123(10):4136–4139', 'volume': '123', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.26444/aaem/155846', 'author': 'M Olczak-Pruc', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '568', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Ann Agric Environ Med', 'key': '590_CR168', 'unstructured': 'Olczak-Pruc M, Szarpak L, Navolokina A, Chmielewski J, Panasiuk L, ' 'Juárez-Vela R, Peacock FW et al (2022) The effect of zinc ' 'supplementation on the course of COVID-19–A systematic review and ' 'meta-analysis. Ann Agric Environ Med 29(4):568–574', 'volume': '29', 'year': '2022'}, { 'author': 'SE Oriaifo', 'first-page': '01', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'World J Pharm Life Sci', 'key': '590_CR169', 'unstructured': 'Oriaifo SE (2018) Effect of a poly-pill of metformin, artesunate and ' 'esomeprazole low-dose (Meald) combination in prevention of malaria and ' 'selected metabolic syndrome criteria. World J Pharm Life Sci 4(4):01–10', 'volume': '4', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.2174/1568026622666220726122339', 'author': 'M Oubahmane', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1776', 'issue': '21', 'journal-title': 'Current Top Med Chem', 'key': '590_CR170', 'unstructured': 'Oubahmane M, Hdoufane I, Bjij I, Lahcen NA, Villemin D, Daoud R, ' 'Cherqaoui D et al (2022) Host cell proteases mediating SARS-CoV-2 entry: ' 'an overview. Current Top Med Chem 22(21):1776–1792', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/nrm2120', 'author': 'CM Overall', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '245', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol', 'key': '590_CR171', 'unstructured': 'Overall CM, Blobel CP (2007) In search of partners: linking ' 'extracellular proteases to substrates. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ' '8(3):245–257', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2007'}, { 'DOI': '10.1126/science.abl4784', 'author': 'DR Owen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1586', 'issue': '6575', 'journal-title': 'Science', 'key': '590_CR172', 'unstructured': 'Owen DR, Allerton CM, Anderson AS, Aschenbrenner L, Avery M, Berritt S, ' 'Zhu Y et al (2021) An oral SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor clinical candidate ' 'for the treatment of COVID-19. Science 374(6575):1586–1593', 'volume': '374', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s12011-022-03292-6', 'author': 'S Ozyildirim', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1615', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Biol Trace Element Res', 'key': '590_CR173', 'unstructured': 'Ozyildirim S, Baltaci SB (2023) Cardiovascular diseases and zinc. Biol ' 'Trace Element Res 201(4):1615–1626', 'volume': '201', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1039/D0NJ04578K', 'author': 'M Pal', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1924', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'New J Chem', 'key': '590_CR174', 'unstructured': 'Pal M, Musib D, Roy M (2021) Transition metal complexes as potential ' 'tools against SARS-CoV-2: an in silico approach. New J Chem ' '45(4):1924–1933', 'volume': '45', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1126/sciimmunol.abm5505', 'author': 'SR Paludan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'eabm5505', 'issue': '67', 'journal-title': 'Sci Immunol', 'key': '590_CR175', 'unstructured': 'Paludan SR, Mogensen TH (2022) Innate immunological pathways in COVID-19 ' 'pathogenesis. Sci Immunol 7(67):eabm5505', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2022.108391', 'author': 'AR Pedrosa', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '108391', 'journal-title': 'J Diab Compl', 'key': '590_CR176', 'unstructured': 'Pedrosa AR, Martins DC, Rizzo M, Silva-Nunes J (2023) Metformin in ' 'SARS-CoV-2 infection: a hidden path–from altered inflammation to reduced ' 'mortality. A review from the literature. J Diab Compl 37:108391', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.272.30.18530', 'author': 'DK Perry', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '18530', 'issue': '30', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR177', 'unstructured': 'Perry DK, Smyth MJ, Stennicke HR, Salvesen GS, Duriez P, Poirier GG, ' 'Hannun YA (1997) Zinc is a potent inhibitor of the apoptotic protease, ' 'caspase-3: a novel target for zinc in the inhibition of apoptosis. J ' 'Biol Chem 272(30):18530–18533', 'volume': '272', 'year': '1997'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fviro.2021.815388', 'author': 'M Pizzato', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Front Virol', 'key': '590_CR178', 'unstructured': 'Pizzato M, Baraldi C, Boscato Sopetto G, Finozzi D, Gentile C, Gentile ' 'MD, Volpini L (2022) SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell: a tale of ' 'interactions. Front Virol. https://doi.org/10.3389/fviro.2021.815388', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijerph7041342', 'author': 'LM Plum', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1342', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Int J Environ Res Public Health', 'key': '590_CR179', 'unstructured': 'Plum LM, Rink L, Haase H (2010) The essential toxin: impact of zinc on ' 'human health. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7(4):1342–1365', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.M400338200', 'author': 'P Podsiadlo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '36219', 'issue': '35', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '590_CR180', 'unstructured': 'Podsiadlo P, Komiyama T, Fuller RS, Blum O (2004) Furin inhibition by ' 'compounds of copper and zinc. J Biol Chem 279(35):36219–36227', 'volume': '279', 'year': '2004'}, { 'DOI': '10.1039/C9RA09350H', 'author': 'BG Poulson', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '215', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'RSC Adv', 'key': '590_CR181', 'unstructured': 'Poulson BG, Szczepski K, Lachowicz JI, Jaremko L, Emwas AH, Jaremko M ' '(2020) Aggregation of biologically important peptides and proteins: ' 'inhibition or acceleration depending on protein and metal ion ' 'concentrations. RSC Adv 10(1):215–227', 'volume': '10', 'year': '2020'}, { 'author': 'AS Prasad', 'first-page': '416', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'J Lab Clin Med', 'key': '590_CR182', 'unstructured': 'Prasad AS, Oberleas D (1970) Binding of zinc to amino acids and serum ' 'proteins in vitro. J Lab Clin Med 76(3):416–425', 'volume': '76', 'year': '1970'}, { 'DOI': '10.1101/gr.1946304', 'author': 'XS Puente', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '609', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Genome Res', 'key': '590_CR183', 'unstructured': 'Puente XS, López-Otín C (2004) A genomic analysis of rat proteases and ' 'protease inhibitors. Genome Res 14(4):609–622', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2004'}, { 'DOI': '10.1021/acsnano.0c04798', 'author': 'B Qiao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '10616', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'ACS Nano', 'key': '590_CR184', 'unstructured': 'Qiao B, Olvera de la Cruz M (2020) Enhanced binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike ' 'protein to receptor by distal polybasic cleavage sites. ACS Nano ' '14(8):10616–10623', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fmolb.2021.725528', 'author': 'Y Rahbar Saadat', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '725528', 'journal-title': 'Front Mol Biosci', 'key': '590_CR185', 'unstructured': 'Rahbar Saadat Y, Hosseiniyan Khatibi SM, Zununi Vahed S, Ardalan M ' '(2021) Host serine proteases: a potential targeted therapy for COVID-19 ' 'and influenza. Front Mol Biosci 8:725528', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.biochi.2010.04.013', 'author': 'ND Rawlings', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1463', 'issue': '11', 'journal-title': 'Biochimie', 'key': '590_CR186', 'unstructured': 'Rawlings ND (2010) Peptidase inhibitors in the MEROPS database. ' 'Biochimie 92(11):1463–1483', 'volume': '92', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/ced/llac027', 'author': 'S Raza', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '73', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Clin Exp Dermatol', 'key': '590_CR187', 'unstructured': 'Raza S, Al-Niaimi F, Ali FR (2023) A systematic review of the uses of ' 'metformin in dermatology. Clin Exp Dermatol 48(2):73–79', 'volume': '48', 'year': '2023'}, { 'author': 'S Reis', 'first-page': 'CD015395', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev', 'key': '590_CR188', 'unstructured': 'Reis S, Metzendorf MI, Kuehn R, Popp M, Gagyor I, Kranke P, Weibel S et ' 'al (2022) Nirmatrelvir combined with ritonavir for preventing and ' 'treating COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9(9):CD015395', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.20944/preprints202210.0223.v1', 'author': 'A Renz', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Preprint', 'key': '590_CR189', 'unstructured': 'Renz A, Hohner M, Breitenbach M, Josephs-Spaulding J, Dürrwald J, Best ' 'L, Kaleta C (2022) Metabolic modeling elucidates phenformin and atpenin ' 'A5 as broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. Preprint. ' 'https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202210.0223.v1', 'year': '2022'}, { 'author': 'SZ Rheingold', 'first-page': '70', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Cureus', 'key': '590_CR190', 'unstructured': 'Rheingold SZ, Raval C, Gordon AM, Hardigan P (2023) Zinc supplementation ' 'associated with a decrease in mortality in COVID-19 patients: a ' 'meta-analysis. Cureus 27(1):70', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.4161/auto.5238', 'author': 'DL Richie', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '115', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Autophagy', 'key': '590_CR191', 'unstructured': 'Richie DL, Askew DS (2008) Autophagy: a role in metal ion homeostasis? ' 'Autophagy 4(1):115–117', 'volume': '4', 'year': '2008'}, { 'author': 'FSE Robert', 'first-page': '29', 'issue': '6602', 'journal-title': 'Science', 'key': '590_CR192', 'unstructured': 'Robert FSE (2022) Bad news for paxlovid? Coronavirus can find multiple ' 'ways to evade COVID-19 drug. Science 377(6602):29', 'volume': '377', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.01.005', 'author': 'H Rosenblum', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '180', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'J Cardiac Fail', 'key': '590_CR193', 'unstructured': 'Rosenblum H, Wessler JD, Gupta A, Maurer MS, Bikdeli B (2020) Zinc ' 'deficiency and heart failure: a systematic review of the current ' 'literature. J Cardiac Fail 26(2):180–189', 'volume': '26', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ph15040453', 'author': 'DA Rusanov', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '453', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Pharmaceuticals', 'key': '590_CR194', 'unstructured': 'Rusanov DA, Zou J, Babak MV (2022) Biological properties of transition ' 'metal complexes with metformin and its analogues. Pharmaceuticals ' '15(4):453', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fonc.2020.01293', 'author': 'AK Sauer', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Front Oncol', 'key': '590_CR195', 'unstructured': 'Sauer AK, Vela H, Vela G, Stark P, Barrera-Juarez E, Grabrucker AM ' '(2020) Zinc deficiency in men over 50 and its implications in prostate ' 'disorders. Front Oncol 10:553161', 'volume': '10', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms23169089', 'author': 'M Scarcella', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '9089', 'issue': '16', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR196', 'unstructured': 'Scarcella M, d’Angelo D, Ciampa M, Tafuri S, Avallone L, Pavone LM, De ' 'Pasquale V (2022) The key role of lysosomal protease cathepsins in viral ' 'infections. Int J Mol Sci 23(16):9089', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2021.111691', 'author': 'S Scavo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'J Inorg Biochem', 'key': '590_CR197', 'unstructured': 'Scavo S, Oliveri V (2022) Zinc ionophores: chemistry and biological ' 'applications. J Inorg Biochem 228:111691', 'volume': '228', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bmc.2018.10.017', 'author': 'J Schmitz', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Bioorg Med Chem', 'key': '590_CR198', 'unstructured': 'Schmitz J, Gilberg E, Löser R, Bajorath J, Bartz U, Gütschow M (2019) ' 'Cathepsin B: active site mapping with peptidic substrates and ' 'inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem 27(1):1–15', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms241310822', 'author': 'IV Seregin', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '10822', 'issue': '13', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR199', 'unstructured': 'Seregin IV, Kozhevnikova AD (2023) Nicotianamine: a key player in metal ' 'homeostasis and hyperaccumulation in plants. Int J Mol Sci 24(13):10822', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1126/science.1204592', 'author': 'C Settembre', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1429', 'issue': '6036', 'journal-title': 'Science', 'key': '590_CR267', 'unstructured': 'Settembre C, Di Malta C, Polito VA, Arencibia MG, Vetrini F, Erdin S, ' 'Erdin SU, Huynh T, Medina D, Colella P, Sardiello M (2011) TFEB Links ' 'Autophagy to Lysosomal Biogenesis. Science 332(6036):1429–1433. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1204592', 'volume': '332', 'year': '2011'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s11886-023-01841-6', 'author': 'LR Sewanan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '171', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Current Cardiol Rep', 'key': '590_CR200', 'unstructured': 'Sewanan LR, Clerkin KJ, Tucker NR, Tsai EJ (2023) How does COVID-19 ' 'affect the heart? Current Cardiol Rep 25(3):171–184', 'volume': '25', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.advnut.2023.08.006', 'author': 'MH Seyedmahalleh', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1374', 'journal-title': 'Adv Nutr', 'key': '590_CR201', 'unstructured': 'Seyedmahalleh MH, Montazer M, Ebrahimpour-Koujan S, Azadbakht L (2023) ' 'The effect of zinc supplementation on lipid profiles in type-2 diabetes ' 'mellitus patients: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis ' 'of randomized clinical trials. Adv Nutr 14:1374–1388', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.imu.2021.100745', 'author': 'N Shahabadi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Inform Med Unlocked', 'key': '590_CR202', 'unstructured': 'Shahabadi N, Zendehcheshm S, Mahdavi M, Khademi F (2021) Inhibitory ' 'activity of FDA-approved drugs cetilistat, abiraterone, ' 'diiodohydroxyquinoline, bexarotene, remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine ' 'on COVID-19 main protease and human ACE2 receptor: a comparative in ' 'silico approach. Inform Med Unlocked 26:100745', 'volume': '26', 'year': '2021'}, { 'author': 'A Sharma', 'first-page': '1', 'key': '590_CR203', 'unstructured': 'Sharma A, Gupta SP (2017) Fundamentals of viruses and their proteases. ' 'In: Gupta SP (ed) Viral proteases and their inhibitors. Academic Press, ' 'Boca Raton, pp 1–24', 'volume-title': 'Viral proteases and their inhibitors', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.2340/0001555518319', 'author': 'S Sheppard', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'Acta Dermato-Venereol', 'key': '590_CR204', 'unstructured': 'Sheppard S (1994) Moroxydine: the story of a mislaid antiviral. Acta ' 'Dermato-Venereol 74:1–9', 'volume': '74', 'year': '1994'}, { 'DOI': '10.1042/BCJ20220380', 'author': 'CL Shetler', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2175', 'issue': '20', 'journal-title': 'Biochem J', 'key': '590_CR205', 'unstructured': 'Shetler CL, Ferreira JC, Cardoso TH, Silva EM, Saksena NK, Rabeh WM ' '(2022) Therapeutic potential of metal ions for COVID-19: insights from ' 'the papain-like protease of SARS-CoV-2. Biochem J 479(20):2175–2193', 'volume': '479', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.xphs.2022.01.008', 'author': 'Y Shirasaka', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1531', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'J Pharm Sci', 'key': '590_CR206', 'unstructured': 'Shirasaka Y, Seki M, Hatakeyama M, Kurokawa Y, Uchiyama H, Takemura M, ' 'Inoue K et al (2022) Multiple transport mechanisms involved in the ' 'intestinal absorption of metformin: impact on the nonlinear absorption ' 'kinetics. J Pharm Sci 111(5):1531–1541', 'volume': '111', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s43440-021-00303-6', 'author': 'E Shirbhate', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol Rep', 'key': '590_CR207', 'unstructured': 'Shirbhate E, Pandey J, Patel VK, Kamal M, Jawaid T, Gorain B, Rajak H et ' 'al (2021) Understanding the role of ACE-2 receptor in pathogenesis of ' 'COVID-19 disease: a potential approach for therapeutic intervention. ' 'Pharmacol Rep 73:1–12', 'volume': '73', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/d41586-022-00403-0', 'author': 'SM Sidik', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '560', 'issue': '7898', 'journal-title': 'Nature', 'key': '590_CR208', 'unstructured': 'Sidik SM (2022) Heart-disease risk soars after COVID—even with a mild ' 'case. Nature 602(7898):560', 'volume': '602', 'year': '2022'}, { 'author': 'AV Skalny', 'first-page': '17', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Med', 'key': '590_CR209', 'unstructured': 'Skalny AV, Rink L, Ajsuvakova OP, Aschner M, Gritsenko VA, Alekseenko ' 'SI, Tinkov AA (2020) Zinc and respiratory tract infections: perspectives ' 'for COVID-19. Int J Mol Med 46(1):17–26', 'volume': '46', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s42003-019-0397-3', 'author': 'TS Skinner-Adams', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '166', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Commun Biol', 'key': '590_CR210', 'unstructured': 'Skinner-Adams TS, Fisher GM, Riches AG, Hutt OE, Jarvis KE, Wilson T, ' 'Andrews KT (2019) Cyclization-blocked proguanil as a strategy to improve ' 'the antimalarial activity of atovaquone. Commun Biol 2(1):166', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2019'}, { 'author': 'J Stanek', 'first-page': '95', 'journal-title': 'Guanidines Reagents Catal', 'key': '590_CR211', 'unstructured': 'Stanek J, Rösener T, Metz A, Mannsperger J, Hoffmann A, Herres-Pawlis S ' '(2017) Guanidine metal complexes for bioinorganic chemistry and ' 'polymerisation catalysis. Guanidines Reagents Catal II:95–164', 'volume': 'II', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.molp.2021.12.008', 'author': 'C Stanton', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '65', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'mol Plant', 'key': '590_CR212', 'unstructured': 'Stanton C, Sanders D, Krämer U, Podar D (2022) Zinc in plants: ' 'integrating homeostasis and biofortification. mol Plant 15(1):65–85', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2022'}, { 'key': '590_CR213', 'unstructured': 'Strand TA, Lillegaard IT, Frøyland L, Haugen M, Henjum S, Holvik K, ' 'Løvik M, Skålhegg BS, Stea TH, Iversen PO (2017) Assessment of zinc ' 'intake in relation to tolerable upper intake levels. Opinion of the ' 'Panel on Nutrition, Dietetic Products, Novel Food and Allergy of the ' 'Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety. VKM report 2017: 6. VKM ' 'Report'}, { 'DOI': '10.1039/D2FO03815C', 'author': 'Y Sun', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4117', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'Food Funct', 'key': '590_CR214', 'unstructured': 'Sun Y, Chen J, Wang H, Song X, Sun Z, Zhang R, Wang M (2023) Marginal ' 'zinc deficiency alters the heart proteome of rats. Food Funct ' '14(9):4117–4128', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1210/clinem/dgaa332', 'author': 'E Sundelin', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '3374', 'issue': '11', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Endocrinol Metab', 'key': '590_CR215', 'unstructured': 'Sundelin E, Jensen JB, Jakobsen S, Gormsen LC, Jessen N (2020) Metformin ' 'biodistribution: a key to mechanisms of action? J Clin Endocrinol Metab ' '105(11):3374–3383', 'volume': '105', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0006-2952(03)00338-1', 'author': 'D Sweeney', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '663', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Biochem Pharmacol', 'key': '590_CR216', 'unstructured': 'Sweeney D, Raymer ML, Lockwood TD (2003) Antidiabetic and antimalarial ' 'biguanide drugs are metal-interactive antiproteolytic agents. Biochem ' 'Pharmacol 66(4):663–677', 'volume': '66', 'year': '2003'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s40001-022-00694-z', 'author': 'SA Tabatabaeizadeh', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Med Res', 'key': '590_CR217', 'unstructured': 'Tabatabaeizadeh SA (2022) Zinc supplementation and COVID-19 mortality: a ' 'meta-analysis. Eur J Med Res 27(1):1–6', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1172/JCI68807', 'author': 'M Tamaki', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '4513', 'issue': '10', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Investig', 'key': '590_CR218', 'unstructured': 'Tamaki M, Fujitani Y, Hara A, Uchida T, Tamura Y, Takeno K, Watada H ' '(2013) The diabetes-susceptible gene SLC30A8/ZnT8 regulates hepatic ' 'insulin clearance. J Clin Investig 123(10):4513–4524', 'volume': '123', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2022.111777', 'author': 'X Tao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '111777', 'journal-title': 'J Inorg Biochem', 'key': '590_CR219', 'unstructured': 'Tao X, Zhang L, Du L, Lu K, Zhao Z, Xie Y, Mao ZW (2022) Inhibition of ' 'SARS-CoV-2 replication by zinc gluconate in combination with hinokitiol. ' 'J Inorg Biochem 231:111777', 'volume': '231', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176', 'author': 'AJ Te Velthuis', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e1001176', 'issue': '11', 'journal-title': 'PLoS Pathog', 'key': '590_CR220', 'unstructured': 'Te Velthuis AJ, van den Worm SH, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van ' 'Hemert MJ (2010) Zn2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA ' 'polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication ' 'of these viruses in cell culture. PLoS Pathog 6(11):e1001176', 'volume': '6', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s10534-022-00373-w', 'author': 'MW Thompson', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '187', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Biometals', 'key': '590_CR221', 'unstructured': 'Thompson MW (2022) Regulation of zinc-dependent enzymes by metal carrier ' 'proteins. Biometals 35(2):187–213', 'volume': '35', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.36849/JDD.2020.4874', 'author': 'BS Tiffany Chao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '713', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'J Drugs Dermatol', 'key': '590_CR222', 'unstructured': 'Tiffany Chao BS, Alfred Lee MD, Foulad BDP, Margit Juhasz MD, Allison ' 'Dobry MD (2020) Oral metformin for treating dermatological diseases: a ' 'systematic review. J Drugs Dermatol 19(8):713–720', 'volume': '19', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.watres.2018.11.001', 'author': 'S Tisler', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '130', 'journal-title': 'Water Res', 'key': '590_CR223', 'unstructured': 'Tisler S, Zwiener C (2019) Aerobic and anaerobic formation and ' 'biodegradation of guanyl urea and other transformation products of ' 'metformin. Water Res 149:130–135', 'volume': '149', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.3109/08923973.2013.780078', 'author': 'E Tönnesmann', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '434', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol', 'key': '590_CR224', 'unstructured': 'Tönnesmann E, Kandolf R, Lewalter T (2013) Chloroquine cardiomyopathy–a ' 'review of the literature. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 35(3):434–442', 'volume': '35', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fendo.2022.1036885', 'author': 'CH Tseng', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1036885', 'journal-title': 'Front Endocrinol', 'key': '590_CR225', 'unstructured': 'Tseng CH (2022) Metformin and risk of gingival/periodontal diseases in ' 'diabetes patients: a retrospective cohort study. Front Endocrinol ' '13:1036885', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms22030997', 'author': 'L Tušar', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '997', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR226', 'unstructured': 'Tušar L, Usenik A, Turk B, Turk D (2021) Mechanisms applied by protein ' 'inhibitors to inhibit cysteine proteases. Int J Mol Sci 22(3):997', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1172/jci.insight.127441', 'author': 'IM Vera', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'JCI insight', 'key': '590_CR227', 'unstructured': 'Vera IM, Ruivo MTG, Rocha LFL, Marques S, Bhatia SN, Mota MM, ' 'Mancio-Silva L (2019) Targeting liver stage malaria with metformin. JCI ' 'insight. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127441', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.09.003', 'author': 'CN Verani', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '59', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'J Inorg Biochem', 'key': '590_CR228', 'unstructured': 'Verani CN (2012) Metal complexes as inhibitors of the 26S proteasome in ' 'tumor cells. J Inorg Biochem 106(1):59–67', 'volume': '106', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/1743-422X-2-69', 'author': 'MJ Vincent', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Virol J', 'key': '590_CR229', 'unstructured': 'Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, Erickson BR, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, ' 'Nichol ST (2005) Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus ' 'infection and spread. Virol J 2(1):1–10', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2005'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciac849', 'author': 'M Vinceti', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '192', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'key': '590_CR230', 'unstructured': 'Vinceti M, Filippini T, Fairweather-Tait S (2023) A potential role for ' 'zinc to enhance treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? Clin ' 'Infect Dis 76(2):192–193', 'volume': '76', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13020562', 'author': 'M Vogel-González', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '562', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '590_CR231', 'unstructured': 'Vogel-González M, Talló-Parra M, Herrera-Fernández V, Pérez-Vilaró G, ' 'Chillón M, Nogués X, Güerri-Fernández R (2021) Low zinc levels at ' 'admission associates with poor clinical outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection. Nutrients 13(2):562', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.ppat.1006872', 'author': 'Y Wang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e1006872', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'PLoS Pathog', 'key': '590_CR232', 'unstructured': 'Wang Y, Jia L, Shen J, Wang Y, Fu Z, Su SA, Xiang M et al (2018) ' 'Cathepsin B aggravates coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis through ' 'activating the inflammasome and promoting pyroptosis. PLoS Pathog ' '14(1):e1006872', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2023.1185233', 'author': 'M Wang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1185233', 'journal-title': 'Front Immunol', 'key': '590_CR233', 'unstructured': 'Wang M, Yu F, Chang W, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Li P (2023) Inflammasomes: a ' 'rising star on the horizon of COVID-19 pathophysiology. Front Immunol ' '14:1185233', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1749-6632.1968.tb27733.x', 'author': 'ED Weinberg', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '587', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Ann N Y Acad Sci', 'key': '590_CR234', 'unstructured': 'Weinberg ED (1968) Antimicrobial activities of biguanides. Ann N Y Acad ' 'Sci 148(3):587–600', 'volume': '148', 'year': '1968'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0050568', 'author': 'KR Wessells', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '11', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE', 'key': '590_CR235', 'unstructured': 'Wessells KR, Brown KH (2012) Estimating the global prevalence of zinc ' 'deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies ' 'and the prevalence of stunting. PLoS ONE 7(11):e50568', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2020.01712', 'author': 'I Wessels', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1712', 'journal-title': 'Front Immunol', 'key': '590_CR236', 'unstructured': 'Wessels I, Rolles B, Rink L (2020) The potential impact of zinc ' 'supplementation on COVID-19 pathogenesis. Front Immunol 11:1712', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1017/S0007114521000738', 'author': 'I Wessels', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '214', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Br J Nutr', 'key': '590_CR237', 'unstructured': 'Wessels I, Rolles B, Slusarenko AJ, Rink L (2022) Zinc deficiency as a ' 'possible risk factor for increased susceptibility and severe progression ' 'of Corona Virus Disease 19. Br J Nutr 127(2):214–232', 'volume': '127', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2666-5247(21)00174-9', 'author': 'GR Whittaker', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e488', 'issue': '10', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Microbe', 'key': '590_CR238', 'unstructured': 'Whittaker GR (2021) SARS-CoV-2 spike and its adaptable furin cleavage ' 'site. Lancet Microbe 2(10):e488–e489', 'volume': '2', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.diabet.2022.101359', 'author': 'N Wiernsperger', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '101359', 'journal-title': 'Diab Metab', 'key': '590_CR239', 'unstructured': 'Wiernsperger N, Al-Salameh A, Cariou B, Lalau JD (2022) Protection by ' 'metformin against severe Covid-19: an in-depth mechanistic analysis. ' 'Diab Metab 48:101359', 'volume': '48', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/nar/gkab1062', 'author': 'DS Wishart', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'D622', 'issue': 'D1', 'journal-title': 'Nucleic Acids Res', 'key': '590_CR240', 'unstructured': 'Wishart DS, Guo A, Oler E, Wang F, Anjum A, Peters H, Gautam V et al ' '(2022) HMDB 50: the human metabolome database for 2022. Nucleic Acids ' 'Res 50(D1):D622–D631', 'volume': '50', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.isci.2020.101642', 'author': 'C Wu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '101642', 'issue': '10', 'journal-title': 'iScience', 'key': '590_CR241', 'unstructured': 'Wu C, Zheng M, Yang Y, Gu X, Yang K, Li M, Li H et al (2020) Furin: a ' 'potential therapeutic target for COVID-19. iScience 23(10):101642', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu15143081', 'author': 'J Wu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '3081', 'issue': '14', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '590_CR242', 'unstructured': 'Wu J, Yang R, Yu H, Qin X, Wu T, Wu Y, Hu Y (2023) Association of ' 'metformin use with iron deficiency anemia in urban chinese patients with ' 'type 2 diabetes. Nutrients 15(14):3081', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41591-022-01689-3', 'author': 'Y Xie', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '583', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Nat Med', 'key': '590_CR243', 'unstructured': 'Xie Y, Xu E, Bowe B, Al-Aly Z (2022) Long-term cardiovascular outcomes ' 'of COVID-19. Nat Med 28(3):583–590', 'volume': '28', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41419-023-05786-0', 'author': 'Z Xie', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '255', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'Cell Death Dis', 'key': '590_CR244', 'unstructured': 'Xie Z, Zhao M, Yan C, Kong W, Lan F (2023) Cathepsin B in programmed ' 'cell death machinery: mechanisms of execution and regulatory pathways. ' 'Cell Death Dis 14(4):255', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fcimb.2023.1149911', 'author': 'J Xu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '411', 'journal-title': 'Front Cell Infect Microbiol', 'key': '590_CR245', 'unstructured': 'Xu J, Zhou Z, Zheng Y, Yang S, Huang K, Li H (2023) Roles of ' 'inflammasomes in viral myocarditis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 13:411', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s41232-023-00259-5', 'author': 'T Yamada', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Inflamm Regen', 'key': '590_CR246', 'unstructured': 'Yamada T, Takaoka A (2023) Innate immune recognition against SARS-CoV-2. ' 'Inflamm Regen 43(1):7', 'volume': '43', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.diabres.2023.110692', 'author': 'FS Yen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Diab Res Clin Pract', 'key': '590_CR247', 'unstructured': 'Yen FS, Wang SI, Lin SY, Wei JCC (2023) Metformin use before COVID-19 ' 'vaccination and the risks of COVID-19 incidence, medical utilization, ' 'and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diab ' 'Res Clin Pract 200:110692', 'volume': '200', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.csbj.2022.06.043', 'author': 'E Yoon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '3533', 'journal-title': 'Computat Struct Biotech J', 'key': '590_CR265', 'unstructured': 'Yoon E, Kim D, Jeon H, Kwon Y, Jang Y, Kim S, Hwang KY (2022) Severe ' 'acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants–Possibility of ' 'universal vaccine design: A review. Computat Struct Biotech J ' '20:3533–3544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2022.06.043', 'volume': '20', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cardfail.2018.02.011', 'author': 'A Yoshihisa', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '375', 'issue': '6', 'journal-title': 'J Cardiac Fail', 'key': '590_CR248', 'unstructured': 'Yoshihisa A, Abe S, Kiko T, Kimishima Y, Sato Y, Watanabe S, Takeishi Y ' '(2018) Association of serum zinc level with prognosis in patients with ' 'heart failure. J Cardiac Fail 24(6):375–383', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00198', 'author': 'HY Younis', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1184', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Res J Pharm Technol', 'key': '590_CR249', 'unstructured': 'Younis HY, Thanoon IA, Fadhil NN, Merkhan MM (2022) Effect of zinc as an ' 'add-on to metformin therapy on glycemic control, serum insulin, and ' 'c-peptide levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus ' 'patient. Res J Pharm Technol 15(3):1184–1188', 'volume': '15', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.1155/2018/6057348', 'author': 'X Yu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'BioMed Res Int', 'key': '590_CR250', 'unstructured': 'Yu X, Huang L, Zhao J, Wang Z, Yao W, Wu X, Bian B (2018) The ' 'relationship between serum zinc level and heart failure: a ' 'meta-analysis. BioMed Res Int 2018:1–9', 'volume': '2018', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102956', 'author': 'S Yuan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '102956', 'journal-title': 'EBioMedicine', 'key': '590_CR251', 'unstructured': 'Yuan S, Carter P, Bruzelius M, Vithayathil M, Kar S, Mason AM, Larsson ' 'SC (2020) Effects of tumour necrosis factor on cardiovascular disease ' 'and cancer: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study. EBioMedicine ' '59:102956', 'volume': '59', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104960', 'author': 'S Yuan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '104960', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol Res', 'key': '590_CR252', 'unstructured': 'Yuan S, Chan JF, Chik KK, Chan CC, Tsang JO, Liang R, Yuen KY (2020) ' 'Discovery of the FDA-approved drugs bexarotene, cetilistat, ' 'diiodohydroxyquinoline, and abiraterone as potential COVID-19 treatments ' 'with a robust two-tier screening system. Pharmacol Res 159:104960', 'volume': '159', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0249594', 'author': 'DM Zake', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'issue': '4', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE', 'key': '590_CR253', 'unstructured': 'Zake DM, Kurlovics J, Zaharenko L, Komasilovs V, Klovins J, Stalidzans E ' '(2021) Physiologically based metformin pharmacokinetics model of mice ' 'and scale-up to humans for the estimation of concentrations in various ' 'tissues. PLoS ONE 16(4):e0249594', 'volume': '16', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s12902-021-00919-y', 'author': 'DM Zake', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'BMC Endocrine Disorders', 'key': '590_CR254', 'unstructured': 'Zake DM, Kurlovics J, Zaharenko L, Komasilovs V, Klovins J, Kawoosa F, ' 'Shah ZA, Masoodi SR, Amin A, Rasool R, Fazili KM, Lone A (2022) Role of ' 'human organic cation transporter-1 (OCT-1/SLC22A1) in modulating the ' 'response to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMC Endocrine ' 'Disorders 22(1):1–11', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms24076142', 'author': 'Z Zawawi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '6142', 'issue': '7', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci', 'key': '590_CR255', 'unstructured': 'Zawawi Z, Kalyanasundram J, Mohd Zain R, Thayan R, Basri DF, Yap WB ' '(2023) prospective roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in ' 'COVID-19: prognosis, therapeutic and management. Int J Mol Sci ' '24(7):6142', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2023'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s10654-022-00922-0', 'author': 'Y Zhang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1251', 'issue': '12', 'journal-title': 'Eur J Epidemiol', 'key': '590_CR256', 'unstructured': 'Zhang Y, Song M, Mucci LA, Giovannucci EL (2022) Zinc supplement use and ' 'risk of aggressive prostate cancer: a 30-year follow-up study. Eur J ' 'Epidemiol 37(12):1251–1260', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2022'}, { 'DOI': '10.18632/oncotarget.14572', 'author': 'C Zhao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '13942', 'issue': '8', 'journal-title': 'Oncotarget', 'key': '590_CR257', 'unstructured': 'Zhao C, Chen X, Yang C, Zang D, Lan X, Liao S, Liu J (2017) Repurposing ' 'an antidandruff agent to treating cancer: zinc pyrithione inhibits tumor ' 'growth via targeting proteasome-associated deubiquitinases. Oncotarget ' '8(8):13942', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41392-021-00558-8', 'author': 'MM Zhao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '134', 'issue': '1', 'journal-title': 'Signal Transduct Targeted Therapy', 'key': '590_CR258', 'unstructured': 'Zhao MM, Yang WL, Yang FY, Zhang L, Huang WJ, Hou W, Yang JK (2021) ' 'Cathepsin L plays a key role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and ' 'humanized mice and is a promising target for new drug development. ' 'Signal Transduct Targeted Therapy 6(1):134', 'volume': '6', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1073/pnas.2009279117', 'author': 'J Zhou', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '25464', 'issue': '41', 'journal-title': 'Proc Natl Acad Sci', 'key': '590_CR259', 'unstructured': 'Zhou J, Li S, Leung KK, O’Donovan B, Zou JY, DeRisi JL, Wells JA (2020) ' 'Deep profiling of protease substrate specificity enabled by dual random ' 'and scanned human proteome substrate phage libraries. Proc Natl Acad Sci ' '117(41):25464–25475', 'volume': '117', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.03.003', 'author': 'IE Zlobin', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '327', 'journal-title': 'Plant Physiol Biochem', 'key': '590_CR260', 'unstructured': 'Zlobin IE (2021) Current understanding of plant zinc homeostasis ' 'regulation mechanisms. Plant Physiol Biochem 162:327–335', 'volume': '162', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3389/fmed.2022.1093868', 'author': 'P Zou', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1093868', 'journal-title': 'Front Med', 'key': '590_CR261', 'unstructured': 'Zou P, Du Y, Yang C, Cao Y (2023) Trace element zinc and skin disorders. ' 'Front Med 9:1093868', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2023'}], 'reference-count': 264, 'references-count': 264, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10534-024-00590-5'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': [ 'Metals and Alloys', 'General Agricultural and Biological Sciences', 'General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology', 'Biomaterials'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Coordination chemistry suggests that independently observed benefits of metformin and Zn2+ ' 'against COVID-19 are not independent', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit