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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Recovery 31% Improvement Relative Risk Ried et al. Vitamin C for COVID-19 RCT EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 237 patients in Turkey Improved recovery with vitamin C (p=0.0081) Ried et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.19902 Favors vitamin C Favors control
Therapies to Prevent Progression of COVID-19, Including Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Zinc, and Vitamin D3 With or Without Intravenous Vitamin C: An International, Multicenter, Randomized Trial
Ried et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.19902
Ried et al., Therapies to Prevent Progression of COVID-19, Including Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Zinc, and Vitamin D3.., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.19902
Nov 2021   Source   PDF  
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RCT 237 patients in Turkey, 162 treated with IV vitamin C in addition to HCQ/AZ/zinc/vitamin D used for all patients, showing significantly faster recovery with the addition of IV vitamin C.
97% of patients were vitamin D deficient, and lower vitamin D levels were associated with ICU admission and longer hospital stay.
Only 1 of 237 hospitalized patients died (average age 63, range 22-99) - a 70-year-old patient with heart and lung disease and severely deficient vitamin D levels (6 nmol/L). IV vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) was given as 50 mg/kg every six hours on day 1, followed by 100 mg/kg every six hours (four times daily, 400 mg/kg/day) for seven days. ACTRN12620000557932.
This is the 9th of 15 COVID-19 RCTs for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.00013.
This is the 35th of 61 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.00000098.
risk of no recovery, 30.6% lower, RR 0.69, p = 0.008, treatment 69 of 162 (42.6%), control 46 of 75 (61.3%), NNT 5.3, day 15 mid-recovery.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ried et al., 25 Nov 2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 3 authors, average treatment delay 4.0 days.
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Therapies to Prevent Progression of COVID-19, Including Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Zinc, and Vitamin D3 With or Without Intravenous Vitamin C: An International, Multicenter, Randomized Trial
Karin Ried, Taufiq Binjemain, Avni Sali
Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.19902
Background COVID-19 is a global pandemic. Treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), zinc, and azithromycin (AZM), also known as the Zelenko protocol, and treatment with intravenous (IV) vitamin C (IVC) have shown encouraging results in a large number of trials worldwide. In addition, vitamin D levels are an important indicator of the severity of symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Objectives Our multicenter, randomized, open-label study aimed to assess the effectiveness of HCQ, AZM, and zinc with or without IVC in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in reducing symptom severity and duration and preventing death. Methods Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in seven participating hospitals in Turkey were screened for eligibility and randomly allocated to receive either HCQ, AZM, and zinc (group 1) or HCQ, AZM, zinc plus IV vitamin C treatment (group 2) for 14 days. The patients also received nontherapeutic levels of vitamin D3. The trial is registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12620000557932 and has been approved by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Results A total of 237 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 aged 22-99 years (mean: 63.3 ± 15.7 years) were enrolled in the study. Almost all patients were vitamin D deficient (97%), 55% were severely vitamin D deficient (<25 nmol/L) and 42% were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L); 3% had insufficient vitamin D levels (<75 nmol/L), and none had optimal vitamin D levels. Of the patients, 73% had comorbidities, including diabetes (35%), heart disease (36%), and lung disease (34%). All but one patient (99.6%; n = 236/237) treated with HCQ, AZM, and zinc with or without high-dose IV vitamin C (IVC) fully recovered. Additional IVC therapy contributed significantly to a quicker recovery (15 days versus 45 days until discharge; p = 0.0069). Side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, reported by 15%-27% of the patients, were mild to moderate and transient. No cardiac side effects were observed. Low vitamin D levels were significantly correlated with a higher probability of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and longer hospital stay.
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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