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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Combined death/ICU/ven.. 83% Improvement Relative Risk Combined death/ICU.. (b) 12% Hospitalization 81% Mortality -4% Ventilation 76% ICU admission 79% Hospitalization time 33% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Hernández et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 216 patients in Spain Lower death/ICU (p=0.0001) and hospitalization (p=0.0001) Hernández et al., The J. Clinical Endo.., Oct 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Hernández et al., The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa733
Oct 2020  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 216 COVID-19 patients and 197 population controls, showing vitamin D deficiency in 82.2% of COVID-19 cases and 47.2% of population-based controls (P < .0001). Authors note: "We did not find any relationship between vitamin D concentrations or vitamin deficiency and the severity of the disease". While no association was found within hospitalized patients, there is an association with hospitalization, and hospitalization is an indication of COVID-19 severity.
19 of the COVID-19 patients were taking vitamin D supplements, showing lower ventilation and ICU admission, but no significant difference in mortality.
This is the 23rd of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of combined death/ICU/ventilation, 83.0% lower, RR 0.17, p < 0.001, high D levels 35, low D levels 162, >= 20ng/mL risk of hospitalization * risk of death/ICU/ventilation | hospitalization.
risk of combined death/ICU/ventilation if hospitalized, 12.0% lower, RR 0.88, p = 0.86, high D levels 35, low D levels 162, >= 20ng/mL risk of death/ICU/ventilation | hospitalization.
risk of hospitalization, 80.6% lower, RR 0.19, p < 0.001, >= 20ng/mL.
risk of death, 3.7% higher, RR 1.04, p = 1.00, high D levels 2 of 19 (10.5%), low D levels 20 of 197 (10.2%), supplementation.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 75.9% lower, RR 0.24, p = 0.13, high D levels 1 of 19 (5.3%), low D levels 43 of 197 (21.8%), NNT 6.0, supplementation.
risk of ICU admission, 79.3% lower, RR 0.21, p = 0.05, high D levels 1 of 19 (5.3%), low D levels 50 of 197 (25.4%), NNT 5.0, supplementation.
hospitalization time, 33.3% lower, relative time 0.67, p = 0.11, high D levels 19, low D levels 197, supplementation.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hernández et al., 27 Oct 2020, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, mean age 60.9, 12 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
José L Hernández, Daniel Nan, Marta Fernandez-Ayala, Mayte García-Unzueta, Miguel A Hernández-Hernández, Marcos López-Hoyos, Pedro Muñoz-Cacho, José M Olmos, Manuel Gutiérrez-Cuadra, Juan J Ruiz-Cubillán, Javier Crespo, Víctor M Martínez-Taboada
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa733
Background: The role of vitamin D status in COVID-19 patients is a matter of debate. Objectives: To assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and to analyze the possible influence of vitamin D status on disease severity. Methods: Retrospective case-control study of 216 COVID-19 patients and 197 populationbased controls. Serum 25OHD levels were measured in both groups. The association of serum 25OHD levels with COVID-19 severity (admission to the intensive care unit, requirements for mechanical ventilation, or mortality) was also evaluated. Results: Of the 216 patients, 19 were on vitamin D supplements and were analyzed separately. In COVID-19 patients, mean ± standard deviation 25OHD levels were 13.8 ± 7.2 ng/mL, compared with 20.9 ± 7.4 ng/mL in controls (P < .0001). 25OHD values were lower in men than in women. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 82.2% of COVID-19 cases and 47.2% of population-based controls (P < .0001). 25OHD inversely correlates with serum ferritin (P = .013) and D-dimer levels (P = .027). Vitamin D-deficient COVID-19 patients had a greater prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, raised
Additional Information Correspondence and Reprint Requests: José Luis Hernández, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, University of Cantabria, Avda. Valdecilla s/n. 39008, Santander, Spain. E-mail: Disclosure Summary: Dr. Hernández reports research grants form Amgen and fees for lectures or speaker bureau from Amgen, MSD, and Bayer, outside the submitted work. Dr. Crespo reports grants and research support from Gilead Sciences, AbbVie, MSD and Intercept Pharmaceuticals (all outside the submitted work) and speaker for Gilead Sciences and AbbVie. Drs. Martínez-Taboada, Nan, Fernández-Ayala, Hernández-Hernández, López-Hoyos, García-Unzueta, Muñoz-Cacho, Olmos, Cubillán, and Gutiérrez-Cuadra, have nothing to disclose. Data Availability: Some or all datasets generated during and/ or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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