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The importance of vitamin d metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19

Xu et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5
Aug 2020  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Review of vitamin D for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, focusing on preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, acting as an immunosuppressant inhibiting cytokine release syndrome, and preventing loss of neural sensation by stimulating expression of neurotrophins like Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).
Reviews covering vitamin D for COVID-19 include1-24.
Xu et al., 26 Aug 2020, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
The importance of vitamin d metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19
Yi Xu, David J Baylink, Chien-Shing Chen, Mark E Reeves, Jeffrey Xiao, Curtis Lacy, Eric Lau, Huynh Cao
Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to a declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. As of May 18, 2020, there have been more than 4.7 million cases and over 316,000 deaths worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by a highly infectious novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to an acute infectious disease with mild-to-severe clinical symptoms such as flu-like symptoms, fever, headache, dry cough, muscle pain, loss of smell and taste, increased shortness of breath, bilateral viral pneumonia, conjunctivitis, acute respiratory distress syndromes, respiratory failure, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), sepsis, etc. While physicians and scientists have yet to discover a treatment, it is imperative that we urgently address 2 questions: how to prevent infection in immunologically naive individuals and how to treat severe symptoms such as CRS, acute respiratory failure, and the loss of somatosensation. Previous studies from the 1918 influenza pandemic have suggested vitamin D's non-classical role in reducing lethal pneumonia and case fatality rates. Recent clinical trials also reported that vitamin D supplementation can reduce incidence of acute respiratory infection and the severity of respiratory tract diseases in adults and children. According to our literature search, there are no similar findings of clinical trials that have been published as of July 1st, 2020, in relation to the supplementation of vitamin D in the potential prevention and treatment for COVID-19. In this review, we summarize the potential role of vitamin D extra-renal metabolism in the prevention and treatment of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, helping to bring us slightly closer to fulfilling that goal. We will focus on 3 major topics here: 1. Vitamin D might aid in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection: • Vitamin D: Overview of Renal and Extra-renal metabolism and regulation. • Vitamin D: Overview of molecular mechanism and multifaceted functions beyond skeletal homeostasis. • Vitamin D: Overview of local immunomodulation in human infectious diseases. -Anti-viral infection. -Anti-malaria and anti-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Supplementary information Supplementary information accompanies this paper at https ://doi. org/10.1186/s1296 7-020-02488 -5. Additional file 1: Table S1 . Ongoing Clinical Trials as of July 2nd, 2020, of vitamin D in the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19. Abbreviations Authors' contributions YX conceived the study and drafted the manuscript. All authors revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Funding This study is supported by Loma Linda University Research Innovation Grant (to H.C.) and LLU GRASP (to Y.X.) These funding bodies had no role in the design or performance of the study nor in the writing or interpretation thereof. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Page 12 of 12 Xu et al. J Transl Med (2020) 18:322 • thorough peer review by experienced researchers in your field • rapid publication on acceptance • support for research data, including large and complex data types • gold Open Access which fosters wider collaboration and increased citations maximum visibility for your research: over 100M website views per year • At BMC, research is always in progress. Learn more biomedcentral.com/submissions Ready to submit your research ? Choose BMC and benefit from: Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and..
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' 'Cell Discov. 2020;6:16.', 'journal-title': 'Cell Discov'}, { 'key': '2488_CR71', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '105949', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949', 'volume': '17', 'author': 'P Gautret', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Gautret P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of ' 'COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. Int J ' 'Antimicrob Agents. 2020;17:105949.', 'journal-title': 'Int J Antimicrob Agents'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2488_CR72', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e00293', 'DOI': '10.1002/prp2.293', 'volume': '5', 'author': 'MAA Al-Bari', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Al-Bari MAA. Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as ' 'a promising strategy for the treatment of emerging viral diseases. ' 'Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2017;5(1):e00293.', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol Res Perspect'}, { 'key': '2488_CR73', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '217', 'DOI': '10.1016/B978-0-12-386960-9.00009-5', 'volume': '86', 'author': 'S Hansdottir', 'year': '2011', 'unstructured': 'Hansdottir S, Monick MM. Vitamin D effects on lung immunity and ' 'respiratory diseases. Vitam Horm. 2011;86:217–37.', 'journal-title': 'Vitam Horm'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '2488_CR74', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '294', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cyto.2011.04.016', 'volume': '55', 'author': 'AL Khoo', 'year': '2011', 'unstructured': 'Khoo AL, et al. Vitamin D(3) down-regulates proinflammatory cytokine ' 'response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis through pattern recognition ' 'receptors while inducing protective cathelicidin production. Cytokine. ' '2011;55(2):294–300.', 'journal-title': 'Cytokine'}, { 'key': '2488_CR75', 'first-page': '244', 'volume': '5', 'author': 'TK Wobke', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Wobke TK, Sorg BL, Steinhilber D. Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases. ' 'Front Physiol. 2014;5:244.', 'journal-title': 'Front Physiol'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '2488_CR76', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2127', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.1102412', 'volume': '188', 'author': 'Y Zhang', 'year': '2012', 'unstructured': 'Zhang Y, et al. Vitamin D inhibits monocyte/macrophage proinflammatory ' 'cytokine production by targeting MAPK phosphatase-1. J Immunol. ' '2012;188(5):2127–35.', 'journal-title': 'J Immunol'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': '2488_CR77', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1089', 'DOI': '10.1086/444461', 'volume': '41', 'author': 'J Xu', 'year': '2005', 'unstructured': 'Xu J, et al. Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ' 'in the brain: potential role of the chemokine mig in pathogenesis. Clin ' 'Infect Dis. 2005;41(8):1089–96.', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'issue': '15', 'key': '2488_CR78', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '7264', 'DOI': '10.1128/JVI.00737-08', 'volume': '82', 'author': 'J Netland', 'year': '2008', 'unstructured': 'Netland J, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus ' 'infection causes neuronal death in the absence of encephalitis in mice ' 'transgenic for human ACE2. J Virol. 2008;82(15):7264–75.', 'journal-title': 'J Virol'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '2488_CR79', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '552', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.25728', 'volume': '92', 'author': 'YC Li', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Li YC, Bai WZ, Hashikawa T. The neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV2 may ' 'play a role in the respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients. J Med ' 'Virol. 2020;92(6):552–5.', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '2488_CR80', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '100', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1043-2760(01)00547-1', 'volume': '13', 'author': 'E Garcion', 'year': '2002', 'unstructured': 'Garcion E, et al. New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous ' 'system. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2002;13(3):100–5.', 'journal-title': 'Trends Endocrinol Metab'}, { 'key': '2488_CR81', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '11', 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms18112482', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'C Di Somma', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Di Somma C, et al. Vitamin D and neurological diseases: an endocrine ' 'view. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18:11.', 'journal-title': 'Int J Mol Sci'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '2488_CR82', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '313', 'DOI': '10.1007/s13167-017-0120-8', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'P Koduah', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Koduah P, Paul F, Dorr JM. Vitamin D in the prevention, prediction and ' 'treatment of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. EPMA J. ' '2017;8(4):313–25.', 'journal-title': 'EPMA J'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2488_CR83', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e01498', 'DOI': '10.1002/brb3.1498', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'U Gomez-Pinedo', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Gomez-Pinedo U, et al. Vitamin D increases remyelination by promoting ' 'oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. Brain Behav. 2020;10(1):e01498.', 'journal-title': 'Brain Behav'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '2488_CR84', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1129', 'DOI': '10.1017/S0950268806007175', 'volume': '134', 'author': 'JJ Cannell', 'year': '2006', 'unstructured': 'Cannell JJ, et al. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. ' '2006;134(6):1129–40.', 'journal-title': 'Epidemiol Infect'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '2488_CR85', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e65835', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0065835', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'P Bergman', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Bergman P, et al. Vitamin D and respiratory tract infections: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. ' 'PLoS ONE. 2013;8(6):e65835.', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE'}, { 'key': '2488_CR86', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'i6583', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.i6583', 'volume': '356', 'author': 'AR Martineau', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Martineau AR, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute ' 'respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of ' 'individual participant data. BMJ. 2017;356:i6583.', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2488_CR87', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '33', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa1809944', 'volume': '380', 'author': 'JE Manson', 'year': '2019', 'unstructured': 'Manson JE, et al. Vitamin D supplements and prevention of cancer and ' 'cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(1):33–44.', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '2488_CR88', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '281', 'DOI': '10.3109/00365511003797172', 'volume': '70', 'author': 'MH Christensen', 'year': '2010', 'unstructured': 'Christensen MH, et al. Seasonal and age-related differences in serum ' '25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone in ' 'patients from Western Norway. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2010;70(4):281–6.', 'journal-title': 'Scand J Clin Lab Invest'}, { 'key': '2488_CR89', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Xu Y, Payne K, Pham L, Eunwood P, Xiao J, Chi D, Lyu J, Campion R, ' 'Wasnik S, Jeong S, Tang X, Baylink J, Chen CS, Reeves M, Akhtari M, ' 'Mirshahidi S, Marcucci G, Cao H.\xa0A novel vitamin D gene therapy for ' 'acute myeloid leukemia. J Transl Oncol. 2020 (In Press).', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100869'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': '2488_CR90', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '709', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.autrev.2010.06.009', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'JC Souberbielle', 'year': '2010', 'unstructured': 'Souberbielle JC, et al. Vitamin D and musculoskeletal health, ' 'cardiovascular disease, autoimmunity and cancer: recommendations for ' 'clinical practice. Autoimmun Rev. 2010;9(11):709–15.', 'journal-title': 'Autoimmun Rev'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '2488_CR91', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1911', 'DOI': '10.1210/jc.2011-0385', 'volume': '96', 'author': 'MF Holick', 'year': '2011', 'unstructured': 'Holick MF, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D ' 'deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin ' 'Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911–30.', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Endocrinol Metab'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '2488_CR92', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '53', 'DOI': '10.1210/jc.2010-2704', 'volume': '96', 'author': 'AC Ross', 'year': '2011', 'unstructured': 'Ross AC, et al. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium ' 'and vitamin D from the institute of medicine: what clinicians need to ' 'know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(1):53–8.', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Endocrinol Metab'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '2488_CR93', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1865', 'DOI': '10.1002/art.37953', 'volume': '65', 'author': 'M Petri', 'year': '2013', 'unstructured': 'Petri M, et al. Vitamin D in systemic lupus erythematosus: modest ' 'association with disease activity and the urine protein-to-creatinine ' 'ratio. Arthritis Rheum. 2013;65(7):1865–71.', 'journal-title': 'Arthritis Rheum'}, { 'issue': '12', 'key': '2488_CR94', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '3447', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.1800018', 'volume': '202', 'author': 'Y Xu', 'year': '2019', 'unstructured': 'Xu Y, et al. In vivo generation of gut-homing regulatory T cells for the ' 'suppression of colitis. J Immunol. 2019;202(12):3447–57.', 'journal-title': 'J Immunol'}, { 'key': '2488_CR95', 'first-page': '7257913', 'volume': '2020', 'author': 'LL Yi Jiang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Yi Jiang LL, Jina L, Larry W, Zhongjian X. Older age is associated with ' 'decreased levels of VDR, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 and increased levels of ' 'PTH in human parathyroid glands. Int J Endocrinol. 2020;2020:7257913.', 'journal-title': 'Int J Endocrinol.'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '2488_CR96', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '315', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04261.x', 'volume': '76', 'author': 'M Hewison', 'year': '2012', 'unstructured': 'Hewison M. An update on vitamin D and human immunity. Clin Endocrinol ' '(Oxf). 2012;76(3):315–25.', 'journal-title': 'Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)'}, { 'key': '2488_CR97', 'first-page': '69', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'K Yin', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Yin K, Agrawal DK. Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases. J Inflamm Res. ' '2014;7:69–87.', 'journal-title': 'J Inflamm Res'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '2488_CR98', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '338', 'DOI': '10.1002/jcb.21858', 'volume': '105', 'author': 'A Raghuwanshi', 'year': '2008', 'unstructured': 'Raghuwanshi A, Joshi SS, Christakos S. Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. ' 'J Cell Biochem. 2008;105(2):338–43.', 'journal-title': 'J Cell Biochem'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '2488_CR99', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '827', 'DOI': '10.2147/TCRM.S3552', 'volume': '4', 'author': 'JA Sunyecz', 'year': '2008', 'unstructured': 'Sunyecz JA. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of ' 'osteoporosis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008;4(4):827–36.', 'journal-title': 'Ther Clin Risk Manag'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '2488_CR100', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '592', 'DOI': '10.1093/ageing/afu093', 'volume': '43', 'author': 'TJ Aspray', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Aspray TJ, et al. National osteoporosis society vitamin D guideline ' 'summary. Age Ageing. 2014;43(5):592–5.', 'journal-title': 'Age Ageing'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '2488_CR101', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '329', 'DOI': '10.17712/nsj.2015.4.20150357', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'FM Alharbi', 'year': '2015', 'unstructured': 'Alharbi FM. Update in vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Neurosciences ' '(Riyadh). 2015;20(4):329–35.', 'journal-title': 'Neurosciences (Riyadh)'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '2488_CR102', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '368', 'DOI': '10.1002/pros.21250', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'MK Chadha', 'year': '2011', 'unstructured': 'Chadha MK, et al. Effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status on serological ' 'response to influenza vaccine in prostate cancer patients. Prostate. ' '2011;71(4):368–72.', 'journal-title': 'Prostate'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '2488_CR103', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e11088', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0011088', 'volume': '5', 'author': 'JR Sabetta', 'year': '2010', 'unstructured': 'Sabetta JR, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute ' 'viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS ONE. ' '2010;5(6):e11088.', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE'}], 'container-title': 'Journal of Translational Medicine', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 25]], 'date-time': '2021-08-25T23:25:35Z', 'timestamp': 1629933935000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': { 'primary': { 'URL': 'https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 8, 26]]}, 'references-count': 103, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '1', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['2488'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1479-5876'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'J Transl Med', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 8, 26]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '24 May 2020', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '20 August 2020', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '26 August 2020', 'order': 3, 'name': 'first_online', 'label': 'First Online', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': 'Not applicable.', 'order': 1, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Ethics approval and consent to participate'}}, { 'value': 'Not applicable.', 'order': 2, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Consent for publication'}}, { 'value': 'The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.', 'order': 3, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Competing interests'}}], 'article-number': '322'}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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