Antioxidants and clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review of observational and interventional studies
Foshati et al.
, Antioxidants and clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review of..
, Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.3034
Systematic review showing that vitamin C, vitamin D, selenium, and zinc can improve COVID-19 clinical outcomes.
Foshati et al., 2 Sep 2022, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
Abstract: | Revised: 22 July 2022 | Accepted: 31 July 2022
Received: 15 September 2021
Antioxidants and clinical outcomes of patients with coronavirus
disease 2019: A systematic review of observational and
| Fatemeh Mirjalili1
| Mahsa Rezazadegan1
| Farnoosh Fakoorziba2 |
Department of Clinical Nutrition,
School of Nutrition and Food Science,
Food Security Research Center, Isfahan
University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan,
Marquise Hospitality, Compass Group,
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Reza Amani, Department of Clinical
Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food
Science, Food Security Research Center,
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences,
Email: email@example.com; rezaamani@
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences,
Grant/Award Number: 299234
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging viral infection caused by
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Oxidative stress appears to be a prominent contributor to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore,
we carried out a systematic review of human observational and interventional studies
to investigate the role of some antioxidants such as vitamins A, E, D, and C, selenium,
zinc, and α-lipoic acid in the main clinical outcomes of subjects with COVID-19. Google
Scholar, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and Medline were searched using
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms without restrictions. Finally,
36 studies for vitamins C and D, selenium, and zinc were included in this systematic
review; however, no eligible studies were found for vitamins A and E as well as α-lipoic
acid. The results showed the promising role of vitamin C in inflammation, Horowitz
index, and mortality; vitamin D in disease manifestations and severity, inflammatory
markers, lung involvement, ventilation requirement, hospitalization, intensive care
unit (ICU) admission, and mortality; selenium in cure rate and mortality; and zinc in
ventilation requirement, hospitalization, ICU admission, biomarkers of inflammation
and bacterial infection, and disease complications. In conclusion, it seems that antioxidants, especially vitamins C and D, selenium, and zinc, can improve multiple COVID-19
clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, more studies are necessary to affirm these results.
antioxidants, ascorbic acid, COVID-19, oxidative stress, SARS-CoV-2, selenium, vitamin D, zinc
I NTRO D U C TI O N
results in mild to moderate influenza-like symptoms, including
fever, dry cough, and fatigue but can also lead to serious out-
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection caused
comes, such as hypoxemia, dyspnea, chest pain, and death. In early
by a highly contagious pathogen named severe acute respira-
2020, COVID-19 infection speedily spread throughout the world
tory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-C oV-2). This disease usually
and was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,
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© 2022 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.
Food Sci Nutr. 2022;00:1–14.
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