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Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin D and normal function of the immune system and inflammatory response (ID 154, 159), maintenance of normal muscle function (ID 155) and maintenance of normal cardiovascular function (ID 159) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (E

EFSA, EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1468
Feb 2010  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 118 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
European Food Safety Administration review concluding that there is a causal relationship between the intake of vitamin D and immune system function.
EFSA et al., 25 Feb 2010, peer-reviewed, 21 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin D and normal function of the immune system and inflammatory response (ID 154, 159), maintenance of normal muscle function (ID 155) and maintenance of normal cardiovascular function (ID 159) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
Carlo Agostoni, Jean-Louis Bresson, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Albert Flynn, Ines Golly, Hannu Korhonen, Pagona Lagiou, Martinus Løvik, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Bevan Moseley, Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold, Hildegard Przyrembel, Seppo Salminen, Yolanda Sanz, J J ) Strain, Stephan Strobel, Inge Tetens, Daniel Tomé, Hendrik Van Loveren, Marina Heinonen, Hans Verhagen The, Maria Carmen Collado, Miguel Gueimonde, Daisy Jonkers, Maria Saarela
EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1468
EFSA), Parma, Italy
INFORMATION AS PROVIDED IN THE CONSOLIDATED LIST The consolidated list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 4 submitted by Member States contains main entry claims with corresponding conditions of use and literature from similar health claims. The information provided in the consolidated list for the health claims which are the subject of this opinion is tabulated in Appendix C. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(2):1468 A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of vitamin D and maintenance of normal cardiovascular function. Conditions and possible restrictions of use In order to bear the claims a food should be at least a source of vitamin D as per Annex to Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. Such amounts can be easily consumed as part of a balanced diet. The target population is the general population. DOCUMENTATION PROVIDED TO EFSA Health claims pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924 /2006 (No: EFSA-Q-2008 -941, EFSA-Q-2008 -942, EFSA-Q-2008-946) . The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Members States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The full list of supporting references as provided to EFSA is available on: APPENDICES APPENDIX A BACKGROUND AND TERMS OF REFERENCE AS PROVIDED BY THE EUROPEAN..
Armas, Hollis, Heaney, Vitamin D2 is less effective than vitamin D3 in humans, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Bikle, Nonclassic actions of vitamin D, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Cantorna, Bruce, The paradoxical effects of vitamin D on type 1 mediated immunity, Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Cedap, Avis de la commission interministérielle d'étude des produits destinés à une alimentation particulière (CEDAP) en date du 18 décembre 1996 sur les recommandations relatives au caractère non trompeur des seuils des allégations nutritionnelles fonctionnelles, BOCCRF (Bulletin Officiel de la Concurrence, de la Consommation et de la Répression des fraudes)
Ceglia, Vitamin D and skeletal muscle tissue and function, Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Cohen-Lahay, Douvdevani, Chaimovitz, Shany, The anti-inflammatory activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in macrophages, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Cotler, Moreines, Ellenogen, Potential benefits for the use of vitamin and mineral supplements
Khazai, Tangpricha, Calcium and vitamin D: skeletal and extraskeletal health, Current Rheumatology Reports
Norman, Henry, Vitamin D, in Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Intl Life Sciences Inst
Odaious, Ordonnance du Conseil Fédéral Suisse du Mars 1995 sur le denrées alimentaires et les objets usuels
Patel, Farragher, Berry, Bunn, Sliman et al., Association between serum vitamin D metabolite levels and disease activity in patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis, Arthritis Rheumatisms
Schott, Wills, Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vitamin D, Lancet
Shoji, Shinohara, Kimoto, Emoto, Tahara et al., Lower risk for cardiovascular mortality in oral 1αhydroxy vitamin D3 users in a haemodialysis population, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Sorensen, Lund, Saltin, Andersen, Hjorth et al., Myopathy in bone loss of ageing: improvement by treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium, Clinical Science
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