Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 Infections and Deaths—Accumulating Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies Calls for Immediate Action

Brenner, H., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020411
Jan 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Summary of epidemiological and intervention studies for vitamin D supplementation. Author concludes that despite limitations, evidence strongly supports widespread supplementation, in particular for high-risk populations, as well as high-dose supplementation for those infected.
Brenner et al., 28 Jan 2021, peer-reviewed, 1 author.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 Infections and Deaths—Accumulating Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies Calls for Immediate Action
Hermann Brenner
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020411
The COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented threat to human health, health care systems, public life, and economy around the globe. The repertoire of effective therapies for severe courses of the disease has remained limited. A large proportion of the world population suffers from vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, with prevalence being particularly high among the COVID-19 high-risk populations. Vitamin D supplementation has been suggested as a potential option to prevent COVID-19 infections, severe courses, and deaths from the disease, but is not widely practiced. This article provides an up-to-date summary of recent epidemiological and intervention studies on a possible role of vitamin D supplementation for preventing severe COVID-19 cases and deaths. Despite limitations and remaining uncertainties, accumulating evidence strongly supports widespread vitamin D supplementation, in particular of high-risk populations, as well as high-dose supplementation of those infected. Given the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic, the benefit-risk ratio of such supplementation calls for immediate action even before results of ongoing large-scale randomized trials become available.
References
Abdollahi, Sarvestani, Rafat, Ghaderkhani, Mahmoudi-Aliabadi et al., The Association Between the Level of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D, Obesity, and underlying Diseases with the risk of Developing COVID-19 Infection: A case-control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran, J. Med. Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.26726
Annweiler, Corvaisier, Gautier, Dubée, Legrand et al., Vitamin D Supplementation Associated to Better Survival in Hospitalized Frail Elderly COVID-19 Patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113377
Annweiler, Hanotte, Grandin De L'eprevier, Sabatier, Lafaie et al., Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105771
Brenner, Holleczek, Schöttker, Vitamin, Insufficiency and Deficiency and Mortality from Respiratory Diseases in a Cohort of Older Adults: Potential for Limiting the Death Toll during and beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic?, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12082488
Brenner, Jansen, Saum, Holleczek, Schöttker, Vitamin D Supplementation Trials Aimed at Reducing Mortality Have Much Higher Power When Focusing on People with Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations, J. Nutr, doi:10.3945/jn.117.250191
Brenner, Schöttker, Vitamin D insufficiency may account for almost nine of ten COVID-19 deaths: Time to act, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123642
Camargo, Jr, Martineau, Vitamin D to prevent COVID-19: Recommendations for the design of clinical trials, FEBS J, doi:10.1111/febs.15534
Cangiano, Fatti, Danesi, Gazzano, Croci et al., Mortality in an Italian nursing home during COVID-19 pandemic: Correlation with gender, age, ADL, vitamin D supplementation, and limitations of the diagnostic tests, Aging
Cantorna, Mechanisms underlying the e_ect of vitamin D on the immune system, Proc. Nutr. Soc
Cantorna, Snyder, Lin, Yang, Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D regulation of T cells, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu7043011
Cashman, Dowling, Škrabáková, Gonzalez-Gross, Valtueña et al., Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: Pandemic?, Am. J. Clin. Nutr, doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.120873
Castillo, Costa, Barrios, Díaz, Miranda et al., Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751
Covid, 19 and Vitamin D Supplementation: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of High Dose Versus Standard Dose Vitamin
Faniyi, Lugg, Faustini, Webster, Duffy et al., Vitamin D status and seroconversion for COVID-19 in UK healthcare workers, Eur. Respir. J
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12040988
Griffin, Wall, Blake, Griffin, Robinson et al., Vitamin D Status of Adults in the Community, in Outpatient Clinics, in Hospital, and in Nursing Homes in the West of Ireland, J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci, doi:10.1093/gerona/glaa010
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Celis-Morales, Katikireddi et al., Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metab. Syndr, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050
Ilie, Stefanescu, Smith, The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality, Aging Clin. Exp. Res, doi:10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8
Jeffery, Burke, Mura, Zheng, Qureshi et al., 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and IL-2 combine to inhibit T cell production of inflammatory cytokines and promote development of regulatory T cells expressing CTLA-4 and FoxP3, J. Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803217
Jungreis, Kellis, Mathematical analysis of Córdoba calcifediol trial suggests strong role for Vitamin D in reducing ICU admissions of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, MedRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.08.20222638
Kaufman, Niles, Kroll, Bi, Holick, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252
Keum, Lee, Greenwood, Manson, Giovannucci, Vitamin D supplementation and total cancer incidence and mortality: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Ann. Oncol, doi:10.1093/annonc/mdz059
Lemire, Adams, Kermani-Arab, Bakke, Sakai et al., 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses human T helper/inducer lymphocyte activity in vitro, J. Immunol
Ling, Broad, Murphy, Pappachan, Pardesi-Newton et al., High-Dose Cholecalciferol Booster Therapy is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Centre Observational Study, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123799
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Golan Cohen et al., Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: An Israeli population-based study, FEBS J, doi:10.1111/febs.15495
Murai, Fernandes, Sales, Pinto, Goessler et al., Effect of Vitamin D 3 Supplementation vs. Placebo on Hospital Length of Stay in Patients with Severe COVID-19: A Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial, doi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20232397
Pagano, Peruzzu, Ruggieri, Ortona, Gagliardi, Vitamin D and Sex Differences in COVID-19, Front. Endocrinol, doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.567824
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Dreher, Boxberger et al., Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092757
Rastogi, Bhansali, Khare, Suri, Yaddanapudi et al., Short term, high-dose vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 disease: A randomised, placebo-controlled, study (SHADE study), Postgrad Med. J, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139065
Rizzoli, Boonen, Brandi, Bruyère, Cooper et al., Vitamin D supplementation in elderly or postmenopausal women: A 2013 update of the 2008 recommendations from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO), Curr. Med. Res. Opin, doi:10.1185/03007995.2013.766162
Spanier, Nashold, Mayne, Nelson, Hayes, Vitamin D and estrogen synergy in Vdr-expressing CD4(+) T cells is essential to induce Helios(+)FoxP3(+) T cells and prevent autoimmune demyelinating disease, J. Neuroimmunol, doi:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.06.015
Suissa, Immortal time bias in pharmaco-epidemiology, Am. J. Epidemiol, doi:10.1093/aje/kwm324
Vassiliou, Jahaj, Pratikaki, Orfanos, Dimopoulou et al., Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit May Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123773
Wang, Degruttola, Lei, Mayer, Redline et al., The vitamin D for COVID-19 (VIVID) trial: A pragmatic cluster-randomized design, Contemp. Clin. Trials, doi:10.1016/j.cct.2020.106176
Weaver, Alexander, Boushey, Dawson-Hughes, Lappe et al., Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of fractures: An updated meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation, Osteoporos. Int, doi:10.1007/s00198-015-3386-5
{ 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13020411', 'ISSN': ['2072-6643'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020411', 'abstract': '<jats:p>The COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented threat to human health, health care ' 'systems, public life, and economy around the globe. The repertoire of effective therapies for ' 'severe courses of the disease has remained limited. A large proportion of the world ' 'population suffers from vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, with prevalence being ' 'particularly high among the COVID-19 high-risk populations. Vitamin D supplementation has ' 'been suggested as a potential option to prevent COVID-19 infections, severe courses, and ' 'deaths from the disease, but is not widely practiced. This article provides an up-to-date ' 'summary of recent epidemiological and intervention studies on a possible role of vitamin D ' 'supplementation for preventing severe COVID-19 cases and deaths. Despite limitations and ' 'remaining uncertainties, accumulating evidence strongly supports widespread vitamin D ' 'supplementation, in particular of high-risk populations, as well as high-dose supplementation ' 'of those infected. Given the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic, the benefit–risk ratio of ' 'such supplementation calls for immediate action even before results of ongoing large-scale ' 'randomized trials become available.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['nu13020411'], 'author': [{'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Brenner', 'given': 'Hermann', 'sequence': 'first'}], 'container-title': 'Nutrients', 'container-title-short': 'Nutrients', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 28]], 'date-time': '2021-01-28T10:23:05Z', 'timestamp': 1611829385000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 10, 19]], 'date-time': '2023-10-19T11:56:22Z', 'timestamp': 1697716582000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 6]], 'date-time': '2023-11-06T06:45:15Z', 'timestamp': 1699253115947}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 28, 'issue': '2', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 28]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '2', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 2]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 28]], 'date-time': '2021-01-28T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1611792000000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/411/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '1968', 'original-title': [], 'page': '411', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 28]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 28]]}, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'reference': [ { 'key': 'ref1', 'unstructured': 'Johns Hopkins University Corona Virus Resource ' 'Centerhttps://coronavirus.jhu.edu/'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu12040988', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref2'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref3'}, {'DOI': '10.1111/febs.15495', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref4'}, {'DOI': '10.3945/jn.117.250191', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref5'}, {'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0239252', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref6'}, {'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26726', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref7'}, { 'DOI': '10.1183/13993003.04234-2020', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D status and seroconversion for COVID-19 in UK healthcare ' 'workers', 'author': 'Faniyi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2004234', 'journal-title': 'Eur. Respir. J.', 'key': 'ref8', 'year': '2020'}, {'DOI': '10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref9'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu12092757', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref10'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu12123642', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref11'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu12123773', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref12'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu12113377', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref13'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105771', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref14'}, { 'DOI': '10.18632/aging.202307', 'article-title': 'Mortality in an Italian nursing home during COVID-19 pandemic: ' 'Correlation with gender, age, ADL, vitamin D supplementation, and ' 'limitations of the diagnostic tests', 'author': 'Cangiano', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '24522', 'journal-title': 'Aging', 'key': 'ref15', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2020'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu12123799', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref16'}, {'DOI': '10.1093/aje/kwm324', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref17'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref18'}, {'DOI': '10.1101/2020.11.08.20222638', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref19'}, {'DOI': '10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139065', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref20'}, {'DOI': '10.1101/2020.11.16.20232397', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref21'}, {'DOI': '10.1111/febs.15534', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref22'}, {'key': 'ref23'}, {'key': 'ref24'}, {'key': 'ref25'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.cct.2020.106176', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref26'}, {'DOI': '10.3945/ajcn.115.120873', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref27'}, {'DOI': '10.1007/s00198-015-3386-5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref28'}, {'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.i6583', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref29'}, {'DOI': '10.1093/annonc/mdz059', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref30'}, {'DOI': '10.1185/03007995.2013.766162', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref31'}, {'DOI': '10.1093/gerona/glaa010', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref32'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu12082488', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref33'}, {'DOI': '10.1017/S0029665110001722', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref34'}, { 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.134.5.3032', 'article-title': '1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses human T helper/inducer lymphocyte ' 'activity in vitro', 'author': 'Lemire', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '3032', 'journal-title': 'J. Immunol.', 'key': 'ref35', 'volume': '134', 'year': '1985'}, {'DOI': '10.3390/nu7043011', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref36'}, {'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.0803217', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref37'}, {'DOI': '10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.06.015', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref38'}, {'DOI': '10.3389/fendo.2020.567824', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': 'ref39'}], 'reference-count': 39, 'references-count': 39, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/411'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': [], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 Infections and Deaths—Accumulating Evidence from ' 'Epidemiological and Intervention Studies Calls for Immediate Action', 'type': 'journal-article', 'volume': '13'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit