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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 54% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Abdollahi et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 402 patients in Iran Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.001) Abdollahi et al., J. Medical Virology, Dec 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The Association Between the Level of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D, Obesity, and underlying Diseases with the risk of Developing COVID-19 Infection: A case-control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran

Abdollahi et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26726
Dec 2020  
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Case control study with 201 patients and 201 matched controls in Iran showing vitamin D deficiency associated with COVID-19.
This is the 33rd of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of case, 53.9% lower, RR 0.46, p = 0.001, high D levels 108, low D levels 294, >30ng/ml.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Abdollahi et al., 12 Dec 2020, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
The association between the level of serum 25(OH) vitamin D, obesity, and underlying diseases with the risk of developing COVID‐19 infection: A case–control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran
Alireza Abdollahi, Hasti Kamali Sarvestani, Zahra Rafat, Sara Ghaderkhani, Maedeh Mahmoudi‐aliabadi, Bita Jafarzadeh, Vahid Mehrtash
Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26726
Background and Objectives: The outbreak of COVID-19 has created a global public health crisis. Little is known about the predisposing factors of this infection. The aim of this study was to explore an association between the serum vitamin D level, obesity, and underlying health conditions, as well as the vulnerability to COVID-19 in the Iranian population. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 201 patients with coronavirus infection and 201 controls. Cases and controls were matched for age and gender. The study was carried out for 2 months (February 2020-April 2020) at Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Information containing age, gender, clinical symptoms, body mass index, computed tomography scan findings, and underlying health conditions related to each participant were elicited from health records. Results: A significant negative correlation (p = .02) was observed between the serum vitamin D level and developing coronavirus infection. Also, the results showed that the COVID-19 cases were more likely to be overweight than the controls (p = .023). Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and respiratory infections were found in 20.89%, 9.65%, and 6.96% of cases, respectively. These underlying health conditions were not significantly different between cases and controls (p = .81). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are two main predisposing factors associated with the vulnerability to coronavirus infection in the Iranian population.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Conceptualization, supervision, project administration: Alireza Abdollahi. Data analysis, writing original draft: Hasti Kamali Sarvestani. Investigation, data curation: Zahra Rafat. Methodology, validation: Sara Ghaderkhani. Resources: Maedeh Mahmoudi-Aliabadi. Writing-Review and Editing, conceptualization: Bita Jafarzadeh. Writing-Review and Editing, data analysis, methodology, data curation: Vahid Mehrtash. ORCID Vahid Mehrtash
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