Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 85% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 94% Vitamin D  COVIDIOL  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 76 patients in Spain (May - June 2020) Lower ICU admission with vitamin D (p=0.008) c19early.org Castillo et al., J. Steroid Biochemist.., Aug 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study

Castillo et al., Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 203, October 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751, COVIDIOL, NCT04366908
Aug 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
RCT on calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing significantly reduced intensive care unit admissions.
All patients received standard care including HCQ+AZ. Significantly lower ICU admission with the addition of calcifediol - adjusted odds ratio 0.03 [0.003-0.25]. No deaths for calcifediol (0/50), 2 deaths for SOC (2/26).
For additional analysis see medrxiv.org.
Meta analysis shows that late stage treatment with calcitriol / calcifediol (or paricalcitol, alfacalcidol, etc.) is more effective than cholecalciferol: 65% [41‑79%] lower risk vs. 39% [26‑49%] lower risk. Cholecalciferol requires two hydroxylation steps to become activated - first in the liver to calcifediol, then in the kidney to calcitriol. Calcitriol, paricalcitol, and alfacalcidol are active vitamin D analogs that do not require conversion. This allows them to have more rapid onset of action compared to cholecalciferol. The time delay for cholecalciferol to increase serum calcifediol levels can be 2-3 days, and the delay for converting calcifediol to active calcitriol can be up to 7 days.
This is the 1st of 29 COVID-19 RCTs for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.0000024.
This is the 3rd of 120 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 248 sextillion).
Study covers vitamin D and HCQ.
risk of death, 85.4% lower, RR 0.15, p = 0.11, treatment 0 of 50 (0.0%), control 2 of 26 (7.7%), NNT 13, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of ICU admission, 94.2% lower, RR 0.06, p = 0.008, treatment 1 of 50 (2.0%), control 13 of 26 (50.0%), NNT 2.1, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Castillo et al., 29 Aug 2020, Randomized Controlled Trial, Spain, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period May 2020 - June 2020, dosage calcifediol 0.5mg day 1, 0.27mg day 3, 0.27mg day 7, and then weekly until discharge or ICU admission, trial NCT04366908 (history) (COVIDIOL).
This PaperVitamin DAll
Abstract: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 203 (2020) 105751 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jsbmb “Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study” Marta Entrenas Castillo a, Luis Manuel Entrenas Costa a, *, José Manuel Vaquero Barrios a, Juan Francisco Alcalá Díaz b, José López Miranda b, Roger Bouillon c, José Manuel Quesada Gomez d a UGC de Neumología, Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba 9 (IMIBIC). Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Universidad de Córdoba, Avda. Menéndez 10 Pidal s/n, 14004 11, Córdoba, Spain b Departamento de Medicina Interna. IMIBIC, CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición. Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Universidad de Córdoba, Fundación Progreso y Salud. Avda. Menéndez Pidal s/n, 14004 14, Córdoba, Spain c Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing, Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, KU Leuven, Herestraat, ON1/902, 3000, Leuven, Belgium d IMIBIC. CIBER de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable. Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Universidad de Córdoba, Fundación Progreso y Salud. Avda. Menéndez Pidal s/n, 18 14004, Córdoba, Spain A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T Keywords: COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Vitamin D Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol Calcifediol or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α, 25(OH)2D or 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D or calcitriol Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Cytokine/Chemokine storm Renin-angiotensin system Hypercoagulability Hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine Covidiol Neutrophil activity Vitamin D endocrine system Cuboidal alveolar coating cells type II Cathelicidin peptide Defensins TLR co-receptor CD14 Vitamin D receptor Objective: The vitamin D endocrine system may have a variety of actions on cells and tissues involved in COVID19 progression especially by decreasing the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Calcifediol can rapidly in­ crease serum 25OHD concentration. We therefore evaluated the effect of calcifediol treatment, on Intensive Care Unit Admission and Mortality rate among Spanish patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Design: Parallel pilot randomized open label, double-masked clinical trial. Setting: University hospital setting (Reina Sofia University Hospital, Córdoba Spain.) Participants: 76 consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, clinical picture of acute respiratory infection, confirmed by a radiographic pattern of viral pneumonia and by a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR with CURB65 severity scale (recommending hospital admission in case of total score > 1). Procedures: All hospitalized patients received as best available therapy the same standard care, (per hospital protocol), of a combination of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 h on the first day, and 200 mg every 12 h for the following 5 days), azithromycin (500 mg orally for 5 days. Eligible patients were allocated at a 2 calcifediol:1 no calcifediol ratio through electronic randomization on the day of admission to take oral calcifediol (0.532 mg), or not. Patients in the calcifediol treatment group continued with oral calcifediol (0.266 mg) on day 3 and 7, and then weekly until discharge or ICU admission. Outcomes of effectiveness included..
{ 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751', 'ISSN': ['0960-0760'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751', 'alternative-id': ['S0960076020302764'], 'article-number': '105751', 'assertion': [ {'label': 'This article is maintained by', 'name': 'publisher', 'value': 'Elsevier'}, { 'label': 'Article Title', 'name': 'articletitle', 'value': '“Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best ' 'available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients ' 'hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study”'}, { 'label': 'Journal Title', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'value': 'The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology'}, { 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version', 'name': 'articlelink', 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751'}, {'label': 'Content Type', 'name': 'content_type', 'value': 'article'}, {'label': 'Copyright', 'name': 'copyright', 'value': '© 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd.'}], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2264-3456', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Entrenas Castillo', 'given': 'Marta', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Entrenas Costa', 'given': 'Luis Manuel', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Vaquero Barrios', 'given': 'José Manuel', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4572-3611', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Alcalá Díaz', 'given': 'Juan Francisco', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8844-0718', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'López Miranda', 'given': 'José', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Bouillon', 'given': 'Roger', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Quesada Gomez', 'given': 'José Manuel', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology', 'container-title-short': 'The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology', 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': ['elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2020, 8, 29]], 'date-time': '2020-08-29T15:13:41Z', 'timestamp': 1598714021000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 1, 27]], 'date-time': '2024-01-27T06:00:47Z', 'timestamp': 1706335247000}, 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 8]], 'date-time': '2024-04-08T08:30:48Z', 'timestamp': 1712565048616}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 486, 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 10]]}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 1]], 'date-time': '2020-10-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1601510400000}}, { 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-017', 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 1]], 'date-time': '2020-10-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1601510400000}}, { 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-037', 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 1]], 'date-time': '2020-10-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1601510400000}}, { 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-012', 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 1]], 'date-time': '2020-10-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1601510400000}}, { 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-029', 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 1]], 'date-time': '2020-10-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1601510400000}}, { 'URL': 'https://doi.org/10.15223/policy-004', 'content-version': 'stm-asf', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 10, 1]], 'date-time': '2020-10-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1601510400000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0960076020302764?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0960076020302764?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'member': '78', 'original-title': [], 'page': '105751', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 10]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 10]]}, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7', 'article-title': 'A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat ' 'origin', 'author': 'Zhou', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '270', 'journal-title': 'Nature', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0005', 'volume': '579', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5', 'article-title': 'Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in ' 'Wuhan, China', 'author': 'Huang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '497', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0010', 'volume': '395', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7', 'article-title': 'Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel ' 'coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study', 'author': 'Chen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '507', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0015', 'volume': '395', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2017.21907', 'article-title': 'Acute respiratory distress syndrome', 'author': 'Fan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '698', 'journal-title': 'JAMA', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0020', 'volume': '319', 'year': '2018'}, { 'article-title': 'Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin definition', 'author': 'Ranieri', 'first-page': '2526', 'journal-title': 'JAMA - J. Am. Med. Assoc.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0025', 'volume': '307', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994', 'article-title': 'Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and ' 'death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, ' 'China', 'author': 'Wu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Intern. Med.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0030', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2016.0291', 'article-title': 'Epidemiology, patterns of care, and mortality for patients with acute ' 'respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care units in 50 countries', 'author': 'Bellani', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '788', 'journal-title': 'JAMA - J. Am. Med. Assoc.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0035', 'volume': '315', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X', 'article-title': 'Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory ' 'distress syndrome', 'author': 'Xu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '420', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Respir. Med.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0040', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.8115', 'article-title': 'Randomized clinical trials and COVID-19: managing expectations', 'author': 'Bauchner', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'JAMA - J. Am. Med. Assoc.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0045', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.8297', 'article-title': 'Estimated demand for US hospital inpatient and intensive care unit beds ' 'for patients with COVID-19 based on comparisons with Wuhan and ' 'Guangzhou, China', 'author': 'Li', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e208297', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw. Open.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0050', 'volume': '3', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105719', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D receptor stimulation to reduce acute respiratory distress ' 'syndrome (ARDS) in patients with coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infections: ' 'revised Ms SBMB 2020_166', 'author': 'Quesada-Gomez', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0055', 'volume': '202', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3892/mmr.2015.4685', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D/VDR signaling attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute ' 'lung injury by maintaining the integrity of the pulmonary epithelial ' 'barrier', 'author': 'Shi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1186', 'journal-title': 'Mol. Med. Rep.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0060', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.3892/mmr.2015.4685', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D/VDR signaling attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute ' 'lung injury by maintaining the integrity of the pulmonary epithelial ' 'barrier', 'author': 'Shi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1186', 'journal-title': 'Mol. Med. Rep.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0065', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1210/me.2013-1146', 'article-title': 'VDR attenuates acute lung injury by blocking Ang-2-Tie-2 pathway and ' 'renin-angiotensin system', 'author': 'Kong', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2116', 'journal-title': 'Mol. Endocrinol.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0070', 'volume': '27', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bcp.2020.113955', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D attenuates lung injury via stimulating epithelial repair, ' 'reducing epithelial cell apoptosis and inhibits TGF-β induced ' 'epithelial to mesenchymal transition', 'author': 'Zheng', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Biochem. Pharmacol.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0075', 'volume': '177', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1096/fj.15-272872', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D modulates tissue factor and protease-activated receptor 2 ' 'expression in vascular smooth muscle cells', 'author': 'Martinez-Moreno', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1367', 'journal-title': 'FASEB J.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0080', 'volume': '30', 'year': '2016'}, { 'article-title': 'Vitamin D. And inflammation: potential implications for severity of ' 'Covid-19', 'author': 'Laird', 'journal-title': 'Ir. Med. J.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0085', 'volume': '113', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8', 'article-title': 'The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 ' 'infection and mortality', 'author': 'Ilie', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1195', 'journal-title': 'Aging Clin. Exp. Res.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0090', 'volume': '32', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12051359', 'article-title': '25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive ' 'PCR for SARS-CoV-2', 'author': 'D’avolio', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0095', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalised ' 'with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity', 'author': 'Panagiotou', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf).', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0100', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2008.02.003', 'article-title': 'Inappropriate serum levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, 25 hydroxyvitamin ' 'D3 and 24,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels in healthy Spanish adults: ' 'simultaneous assessment by HPLC', 'author': 'Mata-Granados', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '676', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Biochem.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0105', 'volume': '41', 'year': '2008'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.078', 'article-title': 'Evaluation of vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) status and response to ' 'treatment of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) using an on-line ' 'SPE-LC-MS/MS method', 'author': 'Mata-Granados', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '452', 'journal-title': 'J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0110', 'volume': '121', 'year': '2010'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0115', 'series-title': 'Gobierno De España, Ministerio De Sanidad, Consumo Y Bienestar Social - ' 'Documentos Técnicos Para Profesionales - Coronavirus', 'year': '2020'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0120', 'unstructured': 'Tratamientos disponibles sujetos a condiciones especiales de acceso para ' 'el manejo de la infección respiratoria por SARS-CoV-2 - Agencia Española ' 'de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios, (n.d.). ' 'https://www.aemps.gob.es/la-aemps/ultima-informacion-de-la-aemps-acerca-del-covid-19/tratamientos-disponibles-para-el-manejo-de-la-infeccion-respiratoria-por-sars-cov-2/?lang=en ' '(accessed June 22, 2020).'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/thorax.58.5.377', 'article-title': 'Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to ' 'hospital: an international derivation and validation study', 'author': 'Lim', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '377', 'journal-title': 'Thorax', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0125', 'volume': '58', 'year': '2003'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0130', 'unstructured': 'In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of ' 'Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory ' 'Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) - PubMed, (n.d.). ' 'https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32150618/ (accessed June 23, 2020).'}, { 'DOI': '10.1086/511159', 'article-title': 'Infectious diseases society of America/American thoracic society ' 'consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia ' 'in adults', 'author': 'Mandell', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'S27', 'journal-title': 'Clin. Infect. Dis.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0135', 'volume': '44', 'year': '2007'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.04.014', 'article-title': 'A simple formula for the calculation of sample size in pilot studies', 'author': 'Viechtbauer', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1375', 'journal-title': 'J. Clin. Epidemiol.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0140', 'volume': '68', 'year': '2015'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00223-011-9513-1', 'article-title': 'Metabolic changes following 500 μg monthly administration of calcidiol: ' 'a study in normal females', 'author': 'Russo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '252', 'journal-title': 'Calcif. Tissue Int.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0145', 'volume': '89', 'year': '2011'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0150', 'unstructured': 'Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected ' 'human cases, (n.d.). ' 'https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/10665-331501 (accessed June 23, ' '2020).'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/1741-7015-8-18', 'article-title': 'CONSORT 2010 Statement: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group ' 'randomised trials', 'author': 'Schulz', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'BMC Med.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0155', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2010'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2012410', 'article-title': 'Observational study of hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized patients with ' 'COVID-19', 'author': 'Geleris', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2411', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0160', 'volume': '382', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1210/er.2018-00126', 'article-title': 'Skeletal and extraskeletal actions of vitamin d: current evidence and ' 'outstanding questions', 'author': 'Bouillon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1109', 'journal-title': 'Endocr. Rev.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0165', 'volume': '40', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.181.10.7090', 'article-title': 'Respiratory epithelial cells convert inactive vitamin d to its active ' 'form: potential effects on host defense', 'author': 'Hansdottir', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '7090', 'journal-title': 'J. Immunol.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0170', 'volume': '181', 'year': '2008'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0215383', 'article-title': '25(OH)D 3 and 1.25(OH) 2 D 3 inhibits TNF-α expression in human ' 'monocyte derived macrophages', 'author': 'Rafique', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'PLoS One', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0175', 'volume': '14', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0090301', 'article-title': 'Both 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin- D3 reduces ' 'inflammatory response in human periodontal ligament cells', 'author': 'Andrukhov', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e90301', 'journal-title': 'PLoS One', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0180', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2014'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/oby.22831', 'article-title': 'High prevalence of obesity in severe acute respiratory syndrome ' 'Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation', 'author': 'Simonnet', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1195', 'journal-title': 'Obesity.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0185', 'volume': '28', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30268-0', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer?', 'author': 'Martineau', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0190', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/nure.12090', 'article-title': 'Guidelines for optimizing design and analysis of clinical studies of ' 'nutrient effects', 'author': 'Heaney', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '48', 'journal-title': 'Nutr. Rev.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0195', 'volume': '72', 'year': '2014'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.08.009', 'article-title': 'Why vitamin D clinical trials should be based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D ' 'concentrations', 'author': 'Grant', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '266', 'journal-title': 'J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0200', 'volume': '177', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/jbmr.3884', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D metabolism revised: fall of dogmas', 'author': 'Bouillon', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1985', 'journal-title': 'J. Bone Miner. Res.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0205', 'volume': '34', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1164/rccm.201909-1867OC', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D metabolism is dysregulated in Asthma and chronic obstructive ' 'pulmonary disease', 'author': 'Jolliffe', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0210', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s00198-018-4520-y', 'article-title': 'Is calcifediol better than cholecalciferol for vitamin D ' 'supplementation?', 'author': 'Quesada-Gomez', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1697', 'journal-title': 'Osteoporos. Int.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0215', 'volume': '29', 'year': '2018'}, { 'article-title': 'Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19 - preliminary ' 'report', 'author': 'RECOVERY Collaborative Group', 'journal-title': 'N. Engl. J. Med.', 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0220', 'year': '2020'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751_bib0225', 'unstructured': 'Corticosteroids (including dexamethasone). NIH website. Updated July 17, ' '2020. Accessed August, 2020. ' 'https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/dexamethasone/.'}], 'reference-count': 45, 'references-count': 45, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0960076020302764'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': [ 'Cell Biology', 'Clinical Biochemistry', 'Endocrinology', 'Molecular Biology', 'Molecular Medicine', 'Biochemistry', 'Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': '“Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on ' 'intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot ' 'randomized clinical study”', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'volume': '203'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit