Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Nitric Oxide
Peg.. Lambda

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin D  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin D  C19 studies: Vitamin D  Vitamin D   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Alkalinization Meta Lactoferrin Meta
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Cannabidiol Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitric Oxide Meta
Ensovibep Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Favipiravir Meta Povidone-Iod.. Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Iota-carragee.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta Zinc Meta

Other Treatments Global Adoption
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?
Palacios et al., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol., 2014, 144PA, 138–145, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.003 (Review)
Palacios et al., Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol., 2014, 144PA, 138–145, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.003 (Review)
Oct 2014   Source   PDF  
  All Studies   Meta
Review showing vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide in all age groups.
Palacios et al., 1 Oct 2014, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin DAll
Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?
Cristina Palacios, Lilliana Gonzalez
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.003
Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East.
Supplementary Material Refer to Web version on PubMed Central for supplementary material. Highlights • Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups. • Low vitamin D status is a problem even in countries with sun exposure all year round. • This problem is particularly high in the Middle East, specially among girls and women. • There is striking lack of vitamin D status data in infants, children and adolescents • There is also lack of data in most countries of South America and Africa.
Absoud, Cummins, Lim, Wassmer, Shaw, Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D insufficiency in children: a Great Britain population based study, PLoS One
Ajlony, Khoursheed, Obeidat, Vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants and toddlers: a prospective study from Irbid, Jordan, Pediatr. Int
Almirall, Vaqueiro, Bare, Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and high arterial blood pressure in the elderly, Nephrol. Dial. Transplant
Atli, Gullu, Uysal, Erdogan, The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and effects of ultraviolet light on Vitamin D levels in elderly Turkish population, Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr
Batieha, Khader, Jaddou, Hyassat, Batieha et al., Vitamin D status in Jordan: dress style and gender discrepancies, Ann. Nutr. Metab
Bener, Al-Ali, Hoffmann, Vitamin D deficiency in healthy children in a sunny country: associated factors, Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr
Bhattoa, Nagy, More, Kappelmayer, Balogh et al., Prevalence and seasonal variation of hypovitaminosis D and its relationship to bone metabolism in healthy Hungarian men over 50 years of age: the HunMen Study, Osteoporos. Int
Binkley, Novotny, Krueger, Kawahara, Daida et al., Low vitamin D status despite abundant sun exposure, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab
Bodnar, Simhan, Powers, Frank, Cooperstein et al., High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates, J. Nutr
Bowyer, Catling-Paull, Diamond, Homer, Davis et al., Vitamin D, PTH and calcium levels in pregnant women and their neonates, Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
Brandenbarg, Vrijkotte, Goedhart, Van Eijsden, Maternal early-pregnancy vitamin D status is associated with maternal depressive symptoms in the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development cohort, Psychosom. Med
Chailurkit, Aekplakorn, Ongphiphadhanakul, Regional variation and determinants of vitamin D status in sunshine-abundant Thailand, BMC Public Health
Choi, Oh, Choi, Choi, Kim et al., Vitamin D insufficiency in Korea--a greater threat to younger generation: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab
Crozier, Harvey, Inskip, Godfrey, Cooper et al., SWS Study Group, Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with adiposity in the offspring: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Daly, Gagnon, Lu, Magliano, Dunstan et al., Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population-based study, Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
Duran, Mangialavori, Biglieri, Kogan, Gilardon, Nutrition status in Argentinean children 6 to 72 months old: results from the National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNyS), Arch. Argent. Pediatr
Eb, Pérez, Cruz, Khorsandi, Chardón et al., Importance of Vitamin D: Role in Cardiovascular Disease and Status in Puerto Ricans, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
El Maghraoui, Ouzzif, Mounach, Rezqi, Achemlal et al., Hypovitaminosis D and prevalent asymptomatic vertebral fractures in Moroccan postmenopausal women, BMC Womens Health
Flicker, Mead, Macinnis, Nowson, Scherer et al., Serum vitamin D and falls in older women in residential care in Australia, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc
Flores, Macias, Lozada, Sanchez, Diaz et al., Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among Mexican children ages 2 y to 12 y: a national survey, Nutrition
Flores, Sánchez-Romero, Macías, Lozada, Díaz et al., Resultados de la ENSANUT
Ganji, Zhang, Tangpricha, Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and prevalence estimates of hypovitaminosis D in the U.S. population based on assay-adjusted data, J. Nutr
Gerdhem, Ringsberg, Obrant, Akesson, Association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, physical activity, muscle strength and fractures in the prospective population-based OPRA Study of Elderly Women, Osteoporos. Int
Gessner, Plotnik, Muth, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among healthy children in Alaska, J. Pediatr
Gilbert-Diamond, Baylin, Mora-Plazas, Marin, Arsenault et al., Vitamin D deficiency and anthropometric indicators of adiposity in school-age children: a prospective study, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Ginde, Sullivan, Mansbach, Camargo, Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol
Glew, Crossey, Polanams, Okolie, Vanderjagt, Vitamin D status of seminomadic Fulani men and women, J. Natl. Med. Assoc
Gonzalez, Alvarado, Rojas, Navarrete, Velasquez et al., High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Chilean healthy postmenopausal women with normal sun exposure: additional evidence for a worldwide concern, Menopause
Gonzalez-Gross, Valtuena, Breidenassel, Moreno, Ferrari et al., HELENA Study Group, Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, Br. J. Nutr
Gonzalez-Molero, Morcillo, Valdes, Perez-Valero, Botas et al., Vitamin D deficiency in Spain: a population-based cohort study, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr
Greene-Finestone, Berger, De Groh, Hanley, Hidiroglou et al., CaMos Research Group, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Canadian adults: biological, environmental, and behavioral correlates, Osteoporos. Int
Guessous, Dudler, Glatz, Theler, Zoller et al., Swiss Survey on Salt Group, Vitamin D levels and associated factors: a population-based study in Switzerland, Swiss Med. Wkly
Halicioglu, Aksit, Koc, Akman, Albudak et al., Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in spring time in western Turkey, Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol
Heere, Skeaff, Waqatakirewa, Vatucawaqa, Khan et al., Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of Indigenous-Fijian and Fijian-Indian women, Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr
Hien, Lam, Skeaff, Todd, Mclean et al., Vitamin D status of pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age living in Hanoi City and the Hai Duong province of Vietnam, Matern. Child. Nutr
Hill, Cotter, Mitchell, Boreham, Dubitzky et al., Vitamin D status and its determinants in adolescents from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort, Br. J. Nutr
Hintzpeter, Mensink, Thierfelder, Muller, Scheidt-Nave, Vitamin D status and health correlates among German adults, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr
Hirani, Associations between vitamin d and self-reported respiratory disease in older people from a nationally representative population survey, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc
Ho-Pham, Nguyen, Lai, Eisman, Nguyen, Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone in a urban population in Vietnam, Osteoporos. Int
Holick, Chen, Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Hossain, Khanani, Hussain-Kanani, Shah, Arif et al., High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani mothers and their newborns, Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet
Houston, Cesari, Ferrucci, Cherubini, Maggio et al., Association between vitamin D status and physical performance: the InCHIANTI study, J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci
Hovsepian, Amini, Aminorroaya, Amini, Iraj, Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adult population of Isfahan City, Iran, J. Health Popul. Nutr
Hurskainen, Virtanen, Tuomainen, Nurmi, Voutilainen, Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with type 2 diabetes and markers of insulin resistance in a general older population in Finland, Diabetes. Metab. Res
Hypponen, Power, Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Islam, Akhtaruzzaman, Lamberg-Allardt, Hypovitaminosis D is common in both veiled and nonveiled Bangladeshi women, Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr
Khor, Chee, Shariff, Poh, Arumugam et al., High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with BMI-for-age among primary school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, BMC Public Health
Kull, Kallikorm, Tamm, Lember, Seasonal variance of 25-(OH) vitamin D in the general population of Estonia, a Northern European country, BMC Public Health
Li, Green, Innis, Barr, Whiting et al., Suboptimal vitamin D levels in pregnant women despite supplement use, Can. J. Public Health
Lu, Zhang, Ke, He, Fu et al., High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in China: relationship with the levels of parathyroid hormone and markers of bone turnover, PLoS One
Luxwolda, Kuipers, Kema, Van Der Veer, Da et al., Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa, Eur. J. Nutr
Maddah, Sharami, Neyestani, Vitamin D insufficiency among postmenopausal women in urban and rural areas in Guilan, Northern Iran, J. Nutr. Elder
Maghbooli, Hossein-Nezhad, Shafaei, Karimi, Madani et al., Vitamin D status in mothers and their newborns in Iran, BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
Mai, Chen, Camargo, Jr, Langhammer, Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and obesity in adults: the HUNT study, Am. J. Epidemiol
Majumdar, Nagaraja, Christopher, Vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians, Int. J. Obes. (Lond)
Manaseki-Holland, Mughal, Bhutta, Shams, Vitamin D status of socioeconomically deprived children in Kabul, Afghanistan, Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res
Marwaha, Tandon, Chopra, Agarwal, Garg et al., Vitamin D status in pregnant Indian women across trimesters and different seasons and its correlation with neonatal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, Br. J. Nutr
Marwaha, Tandon, Garg, Kanwar, Narang et al., Vitamin D status in healthy Indians aged 50 years and above, J. Assoc. Physicians India
Meyer, Holvik, Lofthus, Tennakoon, Vitamin D status in Sri Lankans living in Sri Lanka and Norway, Br. J. Nutr
Miljkovic, Bodnar, Cauley, Bunker, Patrick et al., Low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in elderly Afro-Caribbean men, Ethn. Dis
Mithal, Wahl, Bonjour, Burckhardt, Dawson-Hughes et al., IOF Committee of Scientific Advisors (CSA) Nutrition Working Group, Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D, Osteoporos. Int
Molla, Badawi, Hammoud, Molla, Shukkur et al., Vitamin D status of mothers and their neonates in Kuwait, Pediatr. Int
Morales, Guxens, Llop, Rodriguez-Bernal, Tardon et al., INMA Project, Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in pregnancy and infant neuropsychological development, Pediatrics
Moy, Bulgiba, High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and its association with obesity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, BMC Public Health
Muhairi, Mehairi, Khouri, Naqbi, Maskari et al., Vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, BMC Public Health
Napiorkowska, Budlewski, Jakubas-Kwiatkowska, Hamzy, Gozdowski et al., Prevalence of low serum vitamin D concentration in an urban population of elderly women in Poland, Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn
Olang, Naghavi, Bastani, Strandvik, Yngve, Optimal vitamin A and suboptimal vitamin D status are common in Iranian infants, Acta Paediatr
Oliveri, Plantalech, Bagur, Wittich, Rovai et al., High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in healthy elderly people living at home in Argentina, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr
Oosterwerff, Eekhoff, Heymans, Lips, Van Schoor, Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the metabolic syndrome in older persons: a population-based study, Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
Poopedi, Norris, Pettifor, Factors influencing the vitamin D status of 10-year-old urban South African children, Public Health Nutr
Pramyothin, Techasurungkul, Lin, Wang, Shah et al., Vitamin D status and falls, frailty, and fractures among postmenopausal Japanese women living in Hawaii, Osteoporos. Int
Puri, Marwaha, Agarwal, Tandon, Agarwal et al., Vitamin D status of apparently healthy schoolgirls from two different socioeconomic strata in Delhi: relation to nutrition and lifestyle, Br. J. Nutr
Rabbani, Alavian, Motlagh, Ashtiani, Ardalan et al., Vitamin D insufficiency among children and adolescents living in Tehran, Iran, J. Trop. Pediatr
Rahman, Chee, Yassin, Chan, Vitamin D status among postmenopausal Malaysian women. Asia Pac, J. Clin. Nutr
Rhee, Hwang, Chung, Woo, Vitamin D and diabetes in Koreans: analyses based on the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2009, Diabet. Med
Rockell, Green, Skeaff, Whiting, Taylor et al., Season and ethnicity are determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in New Zealand children aged 5-14, J. Nutr
Rockell, Skeaff, Williams, Green, Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of New Zealanders aged 15 years and older, Osteoporos. Int
Rodriguez, Valdivia, Trincado, Vertebral fractures, osteoporosis and vitamin D levels in Chilean postmenopausal women, Rev. Med. Chil
Saliba, Rennert, Kershenbaum, Rennert, Serum 25(OH)D concentrations in sunny Israel, Osteoporos. Int
Santos, Mascarenhas, Satler, Boguszewski, Spritzer, Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants, BMC Pediatr
Saraiva, Cendoroglo, Ramos, Araujo, Vieira et al., Influence of ultraviolet radiation on the production of 25 hydroxyvitamin D in the elderly population in the city of Sao Paulo (23 degrees 34'S), Brazil, Osteoporos. Int
Schilling, Epidemic vitamin D deficiency among patients in an elderly care rehabilitation facility, Dtsch. Arztebl Int
Seo, Cho, Eun, Yoo, Kim et al., Association between visceral obesity and sarcopenia and vitamin D deficiency in older Koreans: the Ansan Geriatric Study, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc
Sheikh, Saeed, Jafri, Yazdani, Hussain, Vitamin D levels in asymptomatic adults--a population survey in Karachi, Pakistan, PLoS One
Siddiqui, Kamfar, Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency rickets in adolescent school girls in Western region, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Med. J
Sioen, Mouratidou, Kaufman, Bammann, Michels et al., IDEFICS consortium, Determinants of vitamin D status in young children: results from the Belgian arm of the IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary-and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) Study, Public Health Nutr
Stoian, Lyon, Cox, Stephure, Mah, Vitamin D concentrations among healthy children in Calgary, Alberta, Paediatr. Child. Health
Sud, Montenegro-Bethancourt, Bermudez, Heaney, Armas et al., Older Mayan residents of the western highlands of Guatemala lack sufficient levels of vitamin D, Nutr. Res
Sullivan, Wills, Lawlor, Mcgrath, Zammit, Prenatal vitamin D status and risk of psychotic experiences at age 18years-a longitudinal birth cohort, Schizophr. Res
Suzuki, Kwon, Kim, Shimada, Yoshida et al., Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels associated with falls among Japanese community-dwelling elderly, J. Bone Miner. Res
Suárez-Martínez, None
Tao, Shao, Gu, Zhen, Vitamin D status of pregnant women in Shanghai, China, J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal Med
Thuesen, Husemoen, Fenger, Jakobsen, Schwarz et al., Determinants of vitamin D status in a general population of Danish adults, Bone
Unger, Cuppari, Titan, Magalhaes, Sassaki et al., Vitamin D status in a sunny country: where has the sun gone?, Clin. Nutr
Van Oyen, Sihame, Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo, High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women: A National Cross-Sectional Survey, PLoS ONE
Van Schoor, Lips, Worldwide vitamin D status, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab
Vandevijvere; Amsalkhir, None
Verhoeven, Vanpuyenbroeck, Lopez-Hartmann, Wens, Remmen, Walk on the sunny side of life--epidemiology of hypovitaminosis D and mental health in elderly nursing home residents, J. Nutr. Health Aging
Virtanen, Nurmi, Voutilainen, Mursu, Tuomainen, Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with the risk of death in a general older population in Finland, Eur. J. Nutr
Wahl, Cooper, Ebeling, Eggersdorfer, Hilger et al., A global representation of vitamin D status in healthy populations, Arch. Osteoporos
Whiting, Langlois, Vatanparast, Greene-Finestone, The vitamin D status of Canadians relative to the 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes: an examination in children and adults with and without supplement use, Am. J. Clin. Nutr
Wuertz, Gilbert, Baier, Kunz, Cross-sectional study of factors that influence the 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in pregnant women and in cord blood in Germany, Br. J. Nutr
Zgaga, Theodoratou, Farrington, Agakov, Tenesa et al., Diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle underlie the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adults in Scotland, and supplementation reduces the proportion that are severely deficient, J. Nutr
Zhu, Zhan, Shao, Chen, Li et al., High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou, China, BMC Public Health
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop