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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 7% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D  Martineau et al.  META ANALYSIS c19early.org Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data

Martineau et al., BMJ 2017, 356, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583
Feb 2017  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Meta analysis of 25 RCTs showing vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most benefit.
Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants (adjusted odds ratio aOR 0.88 [0.81-0.96], p=0.003).
In subgroup analysis, protective effects were seen in those receiving daily or weekly vitamin D without additional bolus doses (aOR 0.81 [0.72-0.91]) but not in those receiving one or more bolus doses (aOR 0.97 [0.86-1.10]). Among those receiving daily or weekly vitamin D, protective effects were stronger in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <25 nmol/L (aOR 0.30 [0.17-0.53]) than in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels ≥25 nmol/L (aOR 0.75 [0.60-0.95]).
14 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality Argano, Begum, D’Ecclesiis, Hariyanto, Hosseini, Jamilian, Nikniaz, Shah, Sobczak, Xie, mechanical ventilation Hariyanto, Meng, Shah, Xie, ICU admission Hariyanto, Hosseini, Meng, Sartini, Shah, Sobczak, Tentolouris, Xie, hospitalization Argano, severity D’Ecclesiis, Nikniaz, Varikasuvu, Xie, and cases Begum, Sartini, Varikasuvu.
Currently there are 120 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [28‑43%], 16% lower ventilation [-7‑34%], 46% lower ICU admission [28‑60%], 19% lower hospitalization [9‑29%], and 17% fewer cases [9‑24%].
risk of case, 7.3% lower, RR 0.93, p = 0.003, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Martineau et al., 15 Feb 2017, peer-reviewed, 25 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data
Adrian R Martineau, David A Jolliffe, Richard L Hooper, Lauren Greenberg, John F Aloia, Peter Bergman, Gal Dubnov-Raz, Susanna Esposito, Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Adit A Ginde, Emma C Goodall, Cameron C Grant, Christopher J Griffiths, Wim Janssens, Ilkka Laaksi, Semira Manaseki-Holland, David Mauger, David R Murdoch, Rachel Neale, Judy R Rees, Steve Simpson Jr, Iwona Stelmach, Geeta Trilok Kumar, Mitsuyoshi Urashima, Carlos A Camargo Jr
BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583
Objectives To assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from randomised controlled trials. Data sOurces Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number registry from inception to December 2015. eligibility criteria fOr stuDy selectiOn Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D 3 or vitamin D 2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. results 25 eligible randomised controlled trials (total 11 321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years) were identified. IPD were obtained for 10 933 (96.6%) participants. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants (adjusted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96; P for heterogeneity <0.001). In subgroup analysis, protective effects were seen in those receiving daily or weekly vitamin D without additional bolus doses (adjusted odds ratio 0.81, 0.72 to 0.91) but not in those receiving one or more bolus doses (adjusted odds ratio 0.97, 0.86 to 1.10; P for interaction=0.05). Among those receiving daily or weekly vitamin D, protective effects were stronger in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <25 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 0.17 to 0.53) than in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels ≥25 nmol/L (adjusted odds ratio 0.75, 0.60 to 0.95; P for interaction=0.006). Vitamin D did not influence the proportion of participants experiencing at least one serious adverse event (adjusted odds ratio 0.98, 0.80 to 1.20, P=0.83). The body of evidence contributing to these analyses was assessed as being of high quality. cOnclusiOns Vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most benefit. systematic review registratiOn PROSPERO CRD42014013953.
Competing interests: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare financial support for this work from the National Institute for Health Research under its Health Technology Assessment programme. No author has had any financial relationship with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years. No author has had any other relationship, or undertaken any activity, that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. Ethical approval: Not required. Data sharing: A partial dataset, incorporating patient level data from trials for which the relevant permissions for data sharing have been obtained, is available from the corresponding author at a.martineau@ qmul.ac.uk. Transparency: The manuscript's guarantor (ARM) affirms that the manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study being reported and that no important aspects of the study have been omitted. All analyses were prespecified in the study protocol, other than those presented in tables 3 and 5, which were conducted in response to a reviewer's request. This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.
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