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Therapeutic effects of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 aggravation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Yang et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2024.1367686
May 2024  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Meta analysis of 19 RCTs with 2,435 total participants showing significantly lower ICU admission and mechanical ventilation with vitamin D treatment. Results were better for moderate to severe COVID-19 patients, and with multiple dose versus single dose treatment. Length of hospitalization was also significantly lower within the moderate/severe and multiple dose subgroups.
15 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality1-10, mechanical ventilation1,6,7,11,12, ICU admission1,3,6,7,10-14, hospitalization5, severity2,4,6,15, and cases8,14,15.
Currently there are 120 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [28‑43%], 16% lower ventilation [-7‑34%], 46% lower ICU admission [28‑60%], 19% lower hospitalization [9‑29%], and 17% fewer cases [9‑24%].
Yang et al., 27 May 2024, Spain, peer-reviewed, 7 authors. Contact: xingyanwei12345@163.com, shipengsun@gmail.com.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Therapeutic effects of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 aggravation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Yiyuan Yang, Wanli Sun, Fan Yang, Guoxia Zhang, Xinye Li, Shipeng Sun, Yanwei Xing
Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2024.1367686
Background: The therapeutic effects of vitamin D supplementation on Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) aggravation remain controversial and inconclusive. To probe into this contentious issue, we performed the present meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: Literature published up to June 2023 was retrieved from Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science and Embase. RCTs assessing mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (MV), length of hospitalization (LOH), and inflammatory markers containing C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, interleukin-6 (IL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were included. 19 RCTs were involved in the analysis and were conducted subgroup analyses on the baseline COVID-19 severity and vitamin D administration. Results: In the severity subgroup, statistically significant effects in moderate to severe group were observed in ICU admission (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23, 0.80; p = 0.008), MV (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27, 0.72; p = 0.001) and LOH (SMD -0.49, 95% CI -0.92, -0.06; p = 0.027). In the administration subgroup, effects of ICU admission (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.16, 0.97; p = 0.044), MV (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.07, 0.46; p = 0.000) and LOH (SMD -0.50, 95% CI -0.96, -0.04; p = 0.034) were more pronounced in patients supplied with multiple-dose vitamin D than single-dose. Although the result of mortality showed no statistically significant effect, it indicated a reduced trend (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.63, 1.12; p > 0.05). The results of inflammatory markers reached no statistical differences. Conclusion: This meta-analysis revealed that moderate to severe COVID-19 patients supplied with multiple doses of vitamin D were less apt to need ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and have shorter hospital stays.
Author contributions YY: Data curation, Formal Analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Software, Supervision, Validation, Writing-original draft. WS: Data curation, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing-review and editing. FY: Investigation, Software, Supervision, Validation, Writing-review and editing. GZ: Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Supervision, Writing-review and editing. XL: Conceptualization, Supervision, Validation, Writing-review and editing. SS: Supervision, Validation, Writing-review and editing. YX: Funding acquisition, Investigation, Supervision, Validation, Writing-review and editing. Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's note All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Supplementary material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2024.1367686/ full#supplementary-material
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Pharmacol.'}, { 'key': 'B39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2378', 'DOI': '10.3390/jcm10112378', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D levels in COVID-19 outpatients from western Mexico: clinical ' 'correlation and effect of its supplementation', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'Sánchez-Zuno', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J. Clin. Med.'}, { 'key': 'B40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1358', 'DOI': '10.3390/medicina58101358', 'article-title': 'Evidence for the efficacy of a high dose of vitamin D on the ' 'hyperinflammation state in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients: a ' 'randomized clinical trial', 'volume': '58', 'author': 'Sarhan', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Medicina'}, { 'key': 'B41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '682', 'DOI': '10.1093/advances/nmaa125', 'article-title': 'Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and nutritional status: the missing ' 'link?', 'volume': '12', 'author': 'Silverio', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Adv. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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