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COVID-19 and Vitamin D (Co-VIVID Study): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Varikasuvu et al., Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, doi:10.1080/14787210.2022.2035217
Aug 2021  
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Meta analysis of 6 vitamin D treatment RCTs, showing statistically significant improvements for pooled outcomes and PCR positivity, and positive but not statistically significant improvements for mortality, mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and severity.
9 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality Argano, D’Ecclesiis, Hariyanto, Hosseini, Nikniaz, Shah, Xie, mechanical ventilation Hariyanto, Shah, Xie, ICU admission Hariyanto, Hosseini, Shah, Tentolouris, Xie, hospitalization Argano, severity D’Ecclesiis, Nikniaz, Varikasuvu, Xie, and cases Varikasuvu.
Currently there are 116 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [27‑43%], 16% lower ventilation [-8‑35%], 47% lower ICU admission [29‑61%], 20% lower hospitalization [8‑29%], and 16% fewer cases [7‑23%].
Varikasuvu et al., 25 Aug 2021, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
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COVID-19 and Vitamin D (Co-VIVID Study): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Seshadri Reddy Varikasuvu, Balachandar Thangappazham, Hemanth Raj
Background: Vitamin D levels have been reported to be associated with COVID-19 susceptibility, severity and mortality events.. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the use of vitamin D intervention on COVID-19 outcomes. Methods: Literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane library, and databases (latest search on August 5, 2021). We included RCTs reporting the use of vitamin D intervention to control/placebo group in COVID-19. Two independent researchers did literature search, abstracted data, and the risk of bias assessment. Results: A total of 6 RCTs with 551 COVID-19 patients were included. The overall collective evidence pooling all the outcomes across all RCTs indicated the beneficial use of vitamin D intervention in COVID-19 (relative risk, RR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.92, Z=2.33, p=0.02, I 2 = 48%). However, no statistical significance was observed for individual outcomes of ICU care (RR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.30, Z=1.48, p=0.14, I 2 = 66%) and mortality (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.40, Z=0.66, p=0.02, I 2 = 33%), though decreased rates were noted. The rates of RT-CR positivity was significantly decreased in the intervention group as compared to the non-vitamin D groups (RR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.89, Z=2.31, p=0.02, I 2 = 0%). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients supplemented with vitamin D are more likely to demonstrate fewer rates of ICU admission, mortality events and RT-PCR positivity. However, no statistical significance has been achieved for individual outcomes of ICU and deaths. More RCTs and completion of ongoing trials largely needed to precisely establish the association between vitamin D use and COVID-19.
Funding The costs involved in the conduction of this systematic review and meta-analysis were borne by the authors themselves. Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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