Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 65% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case 62% Vitamin D  D’Ecclesiis et al.  META ANALYSIS Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D and SARS-CoV2 infection, severity and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis

D’Ecclesiis et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0268396
Jul 2022  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Systematic review showing significantly lower risk of mortality and severe cases with vitamin D supplementation, and for high vs. low vitamin D levels.
9 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality Argano, D’Ecclesiis, Hariyanto, Hosseini, Nikniaz, Shah, Xie, mechanical ventilation Hariyanto, Shah, Xie, ICU admission Hariyanto, Hosseini, Shah, Tentolouris, Xie, hospitalization Argano, severity D’Ecclesiis, Nikniaz, Varikasuvu, Xie, and cases Varikasuvu.
Currently there are 116 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [27‑43%], 16% lower ventilation [-8‑35%], 47% lower ICU admission [29‑61%], 20% lower hospitalization [8‑29%], and 16% fewer cases [7‑23%].
risk of death, 65.0% lower, RR 0.35, p = 0.004, supplementation.
risk of severe case, 62.0% lower, RR 0.38, p = 0.003, supplementation.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
D’Ecclesiis et al., 6 Jul 2022, peer-reviewed, 19 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D and SARS-CoV2 infection, severity and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Oriana D’ecclesiis, Costanza Gavioli, Chiara Martinoli, Sara Raimondi, Susanna Chiocca, Claudia Miccolo, Paolo Bossi, Diego Cortinovis, Ferdinando Chiaradonna, Roberta Palorini, Federica Faciotti, Federica Bellerba, Stefania Canova, Costantino Jemos, Emanuela Omodeo Salé, Aurora Gaeta, Barbara Zerbato, Patrizia Gnagnarella, Sara Gandini
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0268396
To assess the evidence on SARS-CoV2 infection and Covid-19 in relation to deficiency and supplementation of vitamin D, we conducted a systematic review up to April 2021. We summarised data from 38 eligible studies, which presented risk estimates for at least one endpoint, including two RCT and 27 cohort-studies: 205565 patients with information on 25OHD status and 2022 taking vitamin D supplementation with a total of 1197 admitted to the ICU or who needed invasive mechanical ventilation or intubation and hospital stay, and more than 910 Covid-19 deaths. Primary outcomes were severity and mortality and the main aim was to evaluate the association with vitamin D supplementation. Random effects models showed that supplementation was associated with a significant lower risk of both Covid-19 severe disease (SRR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.72, 6 studies) and mortality (SRR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.70, 8 studies). There were no statistically significant dose differences between studies: summary estimates with regular doses remain statistically significant, suggesting that higher doses are not necessary. For patients on vitamin D supplementation, a greater reduction in mortality risk emerged in older individuals and at higher latitudes. Regarding the quality of studies, assessed using the New Castle-Ottawa quality scale, the analysis revealed in most cases no statistically significant differences between low, medium or high quality studies. We found significant associations of vitamin D supplementation with Covid-19, encompassing risks of disease worsening and mortality, especially in seasons characterized by 25OHD deficiency and with not severe patients. Dedicated randomized clinical studies are encouraged to confirm these results.
Author Contributions Conceptualization: Susanna Chiocca, Patrizia Gnagnarella, Sara Gandini. Data curation: Oriana D'Ecclesiis, Costanza Gavioli, Chiara Martinoli, Aurora Gaeta, Barbara Zerbato. Formal analysis: Oriana D'Ecclesiis, Federica Bellerba, Aurora Gaeta, Barbara Zerbato, Sara Gandini. Funding acquisition: Susanna Chiocca, Paolo Bossi, Diego Cortinovis, Ferdinando Chiaradonna, Sara Gandini. Investigation: Oriana D'Ecclesiis, Chiara Martinoli, Patrizia Gnagnarella, Sara Gandini. Methodology: Oriana D'Ecclesiis, Costanza Gavioli, Chiara Martinoli, Sara Raimondi, Sara Gandini. Project administration: Susanna Chiocca, Sara Gandini. Resources: Susanna Chiocca, Paolo Bossi, Diego Cortinovis, Ferdinando Chiaradonna, Sara Gandini. Software: Oriana D'Ecclesiis. Supervision: Sara Raimondi, Susanna Chiocca, Patrizia Gnagnarella, Sara Gandini. Validation: Sara Raimondi, Stefania Canova, Aurora Gaeta, Barbara Zerbato, Patrizia Gnagnarella. Visualization: Oriana D'Ecclesiis, Federica Bellerba, Sara Gandini. Writing -original draft: Oriana D'Ecclesiis, Chiara Martinoli, Barbara Zerbato, Sara Gandini. Writing -review & editing: Costanza Gavioli, Chiara Martinoli, Sara Raimondi, Susanna Chiocca, Claudia Miccolo, Paolo Bossi, Diego Cortinovis, Ferdinando Chiaradonna, Roberta Palorini, Federica Faciotti, Federica Bellerba, Costantino Jemos, Emanuela Omodeo Sale ´, Barbara Zerbato, Patrizia Gnagnarella, Sara Gandini.
Abdollahi, Hasti, Zahra, Sara, Maedeh et al., The Association between the Level of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D,Obesity, and Underlying Diseases with the Risk of Developing COVID-19 Infection: A Case-control Study of Hospitalized Patients in Tehran, Iran, Journal of medical virology
Abrishami, Dalili, Torbati, Asgari, Arab-Ahmadi et al., Association of Vitamin D Status with Lung Involvement and Outcome in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Study, Eur. J. Nutr, doi:10.1007/s00394-020-02411-0
Alguwaihes, Al-Sofiani, Megdad, Albader, Alsari et al., Diabetes and Covid-19 among Hospitalized Patients in Saudi Arabia: A Single-Centre Retrospective Study, Cardiovasc. Diabetol, doi:10.1186/s12933-020-01184-4
Annweiler, Corvaisier, Gautier, Dube ´e, Legrand et al., Vitamin D supplementation associated to better survival in hospitalized frail elderly COVID-19 patients: the GERIA-COVID quasiexperimental study, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113377
Armitage, Eddowes, Gileadi, Cole, Spottiswoode et al., Hepcidin Regulation by Innate Immune and Infectious Stimuli, Blood, doi:10.1182/blood-2011-04-351957
Baktash, Hosack, Patel, Shah, Kandiah et al., Vitamin D Status and Outcomes for Hospitalised Older Patients with COVID-19, Postgrad. Med. J, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712
Barassi, Pezzilli, Mondoni, Rinaldo, Davi et al., in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients with Non-Invasive Ventilation Support, Panminerva Med, doi:10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04277-4
Barron, Bakhai, Kar, Weaver, Bradley et al., Associations of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes with COVID-19-Related Mortality in England: A Whole-Population Study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587%2820%2930272-2
Bassatne, Basbous, Chakhtoura, El Zein, Rahme et al., The link between COVID-19 and VItamin D (VIVID): A systematic review and meta-analysis, Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154753
Bennouar, Cherif, Kessira, Bennouar, Abdi, Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Serum Calcium as Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Severe COVID-19, J. Am. Coll. Nutr, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1856013
Bergman, Lindh, Bjorkhem-Bergman, Lindh, Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065835
Cangiano, Fatti, Danesi, Gazzano, Croci et al., Mortality in an Italian Nursing Home during COVID-19 Pandemic: Correlation with Gender, Age, ADL, Vitamin D Supplementation, and Limitations of the Diagnostic Tests, Aging
Carpagnano, Lecce, Quaranta, Zito, Buonamico et al., Vitamin D Deficiency as a Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure due to COVID-19, J. Endocrinol. Invest, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x
Castillo, Costa, Barrios, Diaz, Miranda et al., Effect of Calcifediol Treatment and Best Available Therapy Versus Best Available Therapy on Intensive Care Unit Admission and Mortality among Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: A Pilot Randomized Clinical StudyJ, Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol
Castillo, Costa, Barrios, Dı ´az, Lo ´pez et al., Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available tehrapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: a pilot randomized clinical study, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751
Cereda, Bogliolo, Lobascio, Barichella, Zecchinelli et al., Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111055
Chalcraft, Cardinal, Wechsler, Hollis, Gerow et al., D Synthesis Following a Single Bout of Sun Exposure in Older and Younger Men and Women, Nutrients
Charoenngam, Shirvani, Holick, Vitamin D and its Potential Benefit for the COVID-19 Pandemic, Endocr. Pract, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.03.006
Chhetri, Chan, Arai, Park, Gunaratne et al., Prevention of COVID-19 in Older Adults: A Brief Guidance from the International Association for Gerontology and Geriatrics (IAGG) Asia/Oceania Region, J. Nutr. Health Aging, doi:10.1007/s12603-020-1359-7
Chun, Liu, Modlin, Adams, Hewison, Impact of Vitamin D on Immune Function: Lessons Learned from Genome-Wide Analysis, Front. Physiol, doi:10.3389/fphys.2014.00151
Cui, Tian, Using genetic variants to evaluate the causal effect of serum vitamin D concentration on COVID-19 susceptibility, severity and hospitalization traits: a Mendelian randomization study, J Transl Med, doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02973-5
Dancer, Parekh, Lax, Souza, Zheng et al., Vitamin D Deficiency Contributes Directly to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206680
Faul, Kerley, Love, Neill, Cody et al., Vitamin D Deficiency and ARDS After SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Ir. Med. J
Ferrari, Locatelli, No Significant Association between Vitamin D and COVID-19: A Retrospective Study from a Northern Italian Hospital, Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res, doi:10.1024/0300-9831/a000687
Gavioli, Miyashita, Hassaneen, Siau, An Evaluation of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City, J. Am. Coll. Nutr, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1869626
Getachew, Tizabi, Vitamin D and COVID-19: Role of ACE2, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity, J. Med. Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.27075
Ghasemian, Shamshirian, Heydari, Malekan, Alizadeh-Navaei et al., The role of vitamin D in the age of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Int J Clin Pract, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14675
Giannini, Passeri, Tripepi, Sella, Fusaro et al., Effectiveness of in-Hospital Cholecalciferol use on Clinical Outcomes in Comorbid COVID-19 Patients: A Hypothesis-Generating Study, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13010219
Ginde, Mansbach, Camargo, Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Arch. Intern. Med, doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2008.560
Goyal, Choi, Pinheiro, Schenck, Chen et al., Clinical Characteristics of Covid-19 in New York City, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2010419
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12040988
Griffin, Hewison, Hopkin, Kenny, Quinton et al., Vitamin D and COVID-19: Evidence and Recommendations for Supplementation, R. Soc. Open Sci, doi:10.1098/rsos.201912
Hagenau, Vest, Gissel, Poulsen, Erlandsen et al., Vitamin D Levels in Relation to Age, Gender, Skin Pigmentation and Latitude: An Ecologic Meta-Regression Analysis, Osteoporos. Int, doi:10.1007/s00198-008-0626-y
Hansdottir, Monick, Hinde, Lovan, Look et al., Respiratory Epithelial Cells Convert Inactive Vitamin D to its Active Form: Potential Effects on Host Defense, J. Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.181.10.7090
Hansdottir, Monick, Lovan, Powers, Gerke et al., Vitamin D Decreases Respiratory Syncytial Virus Induction of NF-kappaB-Linked Chemokines and Cytokines in Airway Epithelium while Maintaining the Antiviral State, J. Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0902840
Hansdottir, Monick, Vitamin D Effects on Lung Immunity and Respiratory Diseases, Vitam. Horm, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-386960-9.00009-5
Herna ´ndez, Ferna ´ndez-Ayala, Garcı ´a-Unzueta, Herna ´ndez-Herna ´ndez, Lo ´pez-Hoyos, Vitamin D status in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV2 infection, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa733
Hoffmann, Kleine-Weber, Schroeder, Kruger, Herrler et al., SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor, Cell, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052
Holick, Resurrection of Vitamin D Deficiency and Rickets, J. Clin. Invest, doi:10.1172/JCI29449
Holick, Vitamin, Deficiency, None, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553
Huotari, Herzig, Vitamin D and Living in Northern Latitudes-an Endemic Risk Area for Vitamin D Deficiency, Int. J. Circumpolar Health, doi:10.3402/ijch.v67i2-3.18258
Im, Je, Baek, Chung, Kwon et al., Nutritional Status of Patients with COVID-19, Int. J. Infect. Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018
Jain, Chaurasia, Sengar, Singh, Mahor et al., Analysis of Vitamin D Level among Asymptomatic and Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients and its Correlation with Inflammatory Markers, Sci. Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77093-z
Jevalikar, Mithal, Singh, Sharma, Farooqui et al., Lack of Association of Baseline 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels with Disease Severity and Mortality in Indian Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19, Sci. Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85809-y
Jolliffe, Camargo, Jr, Sluyter, Aglipay et al., Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Aggregate Data from Randomised Controlled Trials, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587%2821%2900051-6
Karonova, Andreeva, Vashukova, Serum 25(oH)D Level in Patients with CoVID-19, Journal infectology
Kaufman, Niles, Kroll, Bi, Holick, SARS-CoV-2 Positivity Rates Associated with Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252
Kazemi, Mohammadi, Aghababaee, Golzarand, Clark et al., Association of Vitamin D Status with SARS-CoV-2 Infection or COVID-19 Severity: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis, Adv Nutr, doi:10.1093/advances/nmab012
Lancet Diabetes, COVID-19 and Diabetes: A Co-Conspiracy?, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587%2820%2930315-6
Lau, Majumder, Torabi, Saeg, Hoffman et al., Vitamin D Insufficiency is Prevalent in Severe COVID-19, medRxiv
Ling, Broad, Murphy, Pappachan, Pardesi-Newton et al., High-Dose Cholecalciferol Booster Therapy is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Centre Observational Study, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123799
Ling, Broad, Murphy, Pappachan, Pardesi-Newton et al., High-dose cholecalciferol booster therapy is associated with a reduced risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19: a cross-sectional multi-centre observational study, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123799
Lippi, Wong, Henry, Hypertension in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Pooled Analysis, Pol. Arch. Intern. Med, doi:10.20452/pamw.15272
Liu, Sun, Wang, Zhang, Zhao et al., Low vitamin D status is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int J Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.077
Lohia, Nguyen, Patel, Kapur, Exploring the Link between Vitamin D and Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2020
Luo, Liao, Shen, Li, Cheng, Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Disease Severity in Chinese People, J. Nutr, doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa332
Maclaughlin, Holick, Aging Decreases the Capacity of Human Skin to Produce Vitamin D3, J. Clin. Invest, doi:10.1172/JCI112134
Maghbooli, Sahraian, Ebrahimi, Pazoki, Kafan et al., Vitamin D Sufficiency, a Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D at Least 30 Ng/mL Reduced Risk for Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 Infection, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239799
Mahdavi, A brief review of interplay between vitamin D and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: Implications for a potential treatment for COVID-19, Rev Med Virol, doi:10.1002/rmv.2119
Marik, Kory, Varon, Does Vitamin D Status Impact Mortality from SARS-CoV-2 Infection?, Med. Drug Discov, doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100041
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Acute Respiratory Tract Infections: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583
Mccartney, Shea, Faul, Healy, Byrne et al., Vitamin D and SARS-CoV-2 Infection-Evolution of Evidence Supporting Clinical Practice and Policy Development: A Position Statement from the Covit-D Consortium, Ir. J. Med. Sci, doi:10.1007/s11845-020-02427-9
Mehraeen, Karimi, Barzegary, Vahedi, Afsahi et al., Predictors of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19-a Systematic Review, Eur. J. Integr. Med, doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2020.101226
Melamed, Michos, Post, Astor, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and the Risk of Mortality in the General Population, Arch. Intern. Med, doi:10.1001/archinte.168.15.1629
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics with COVID-19 Test Results, JAMA Netw. Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19722
Mendy, Apewokin, Wells, Morrow, Factors Associated with Hospitalization and Disease Severity in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Population of COVID-19 Patients, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.25.20137323
Mercola, Grant, Wagner, Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113361
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Cohen et al., Low Plasma 25(OH) Vitamin D Level is Associated with Increased Risk of COVID-19 Infection: An Israeli Population-Based Study, FEBS J, doi:10.1111/febs.15495
Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, The et al., Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement, PLoS Med, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed1000097
Munshi, Hussein, Toraih, Elshazli, Jardak et al., Vitamin D insufficiency as a potential culprit in critical COVID-19 patients, J Med Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.26360
Murai, Fernandes, Sales, Pinto, Goessler et al., Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation Vs Placebo on Hospital Length of Stay in Patients with Severe COVID-19: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial, medRxiv
Murai, Fernandes, Sales, Pinto, Goessler et al., Effect of a single high dose of vitamin D3 on hospital length of stay in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. A randomized clinical trial, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26848
Nile, Nile, Qiu, Li, Jia et al., COVID-19: Pathogenesis, cytokine storm and therapeutic potential of interferons, Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.05.002
Orchard, Baldry, Nasim-Mohi, Monck, Saeed et al., Vitamin-D Levels and Intensive Care Unit Outcomes of a Cohort of Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients, Clin. Chem. Lab. Med, doi:10.1515/cclm-2020-1567
Oscanoa, Amado, Vidal, Laird, Ghashut et al., The relationship between the severity and mortality of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration-a metaanalysis, Adv Respir Med, doi:10.5603/ARM.a2021.0037
Pagano, Peruzzu, Ruggieri, Ortona, Gagliardi, Vitamin D and Sex Differences in COVID-19, Front. Endocrinol, doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.567824
Panagiotou, Tee, Ihsan, Athar, Marchitelli et al., Original Publication: Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) Levels in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 are Associated with Greater Disease Severity, Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf), doi:10.1111/cen.14310
Pereira, Damascena, Azevedo, De Almeida Oliveira, Da et al., Vitamin D Deficiency Aggravates COVID-19: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr, doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1841090
Petrelli, Luciani, Perego, Dognini, Colombelli et al., Therapeutic and Prognostic Role of Vitamin D for COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 43 Observational Studies, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105883
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Dreher, Boxberger, Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092757
Rajan, Weishaar, Keller, Weight and Skin Colour as Predictors of Vitamin D Status: Results of an Epidemiological Investigation using Nationally Representative Data, Public Health Nutr, doi:10.1017/S1368980016000173
Ramazan, Saeed, Mahdi, Farhad, Ehsan, Immunomodulatory Effects of Vitamin D in Influenza Infection, Current Immunology Reviews, doi:10.2174/1573395513666171031162100
Rastogi, Bhansali, Khare, Suri, Yaddanapudi et al., Short term, high-dose vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 disease: a randomised, placebo-controlled, study (SHADE study), Postgrad Med J, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139065
Reliefweb, Covid-19 Disease South America Regional Response
Rosa, Malaguarnera, Nicoletti, Malaguarnera, Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno-modulator, Immunology, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2011.03482.x
Santaolalla, Beckmann, Kibaru, Josephs, Van Hemelrijck et al., Association between Vitamin D and Novel SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Dysfunction-A Scoping Review of Current Evidence and its Implication for COVID-19 Pandemic, Front. Physiol, doi:10.3389/fphys.2020.564387
Schild, Voracek, Finding Your Way Out of the Forest without a Trail of Bread Crumbs: Development and Evaluation of Two Novel Displays of Forest Plots, Res. Synth. Methods, doi:10.1002/jrsm.1125
Shah, Saxena, Mavalankar, Vitamin D supplementation, COVID-19 and disease severity: a meta-analysis, QJM, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab009
Smet, Smet, Herroelen, Gryspeerdt, Martens, Serum 25(OH)D Level on Hospital Admission Associated with COVID-19 Stage and Mortality, Am. J. Clin. Pathol, doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqaa252
Tan, Ho, Kalimuddin, Cherng, Teh et al., Cohort Study to Evaluate the Effect of Vitamin D, Magnesium, and Vitamin B12 in Combination on Progression to Severe Outcomes in Older Patients with Coronavirus (COVID-19), Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111017
Teshome, Adane, Girma, Mekonnen, The Impact of Vitamin D Level on COVID-19 Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Front Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.624559
Tort, Mercado, ´nez Cuazitl, Nieto, ´rez Rar, Deficiency of Vitamin D is a Risk Factor of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19, Revista de Sanidad Militar
Vassiliou, Jahaj, Pratikaki, Orfanos, Dimopoulou et al., Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit may Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123773
Wacker, Holick, Sunlight and Vitamin D: A Global Perspective for Health, Dermatoendocrinol, doi:10.4161/derm.24494
Walk, Dofferhoff, Van Den Ouweland, Jody, Van Daal et al., Vitamin D-Contrary to Vitamin K-does Not Associate with Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients, medRxiv
Wells, Shea, Connell, Peterson, Welch et al., of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses
Ye, Tang, Liao, Shaw, Deng et al., Does Serum Vitamin D Level Affect COVID-19 Infection and its Severity?-A Case-Control Study, J. Am. Coll. Nutr, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1826005
Yisak, Ewunetei, Kefale, Mamuye, Teshome et al., Effects of Vitamin D on COVID-19 Infection and Prognosis: A Systematic Review, Risk Manag. Healthc. Policy, doi:10.2147/RMHP.S291584
Zdrenghea, Makrinioti, Bagacean, Bush, Johnston et al., Vitamin D Modulation of Innate Immune Responses to Respiratory Viral Infections, Rev. Med. Virol, doi:10.1002/rmv.1909
Zerwekh, Blood Biomarkers of Vitamin D Status, Am. J. Clin. Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/87.4.1087S
Zhou, Yang, Wang, Hu, Zhang et al., A Pneumonia Outbreak Associated with a New Coronavirus of Probable Bat Origin, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop