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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 15% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 19% ICU admission 28% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Lohia et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 183 patients in the USA Lower mortality (p=0.56) and ventilation (p=0.48), not sig. Lohia et al., American J. Physiology-E.., Mar 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Exploring the link between vitamin D and clinical outcomes in COVID-19

Lohia et al., American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2020
Mar 2021  
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Retrospective 270 patients with vitamin D levels measured in the last year, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels or vitamin D supplementation.
This is the 52nd of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of death, 14.7% lower, RR 0.85, p = 0.56, high D levels 88, low D levels 95, odds ratio converted to relative risk, control prevalence approximated with overall prevalence, >30 ng/mL vs. <20 ng/mL, >30 ng/mL group size approximated.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 18.9% lower, RR 0.81, p = 0.48, high D levels 88, low D levels 95, odds ratio converted to relative risk, control prevalence approximated with overall prevalence, >30 ng/mL vs. <20 ng/mL, >30 ng/mL group size approximated.
risk of ICU admission, 28.5% lower, RR 0.72, p = 0.17, high D levels 88, low D levels 95, odds ratio converted to relative risk, control prevalence approximated with overall prevalence, >30 ng/mL vs. <20 ng/mL, >30 ng/mL group size approximated.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Lohia et al., 4 Mar 2021, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
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Exploring the link between vitamin D and clinical outcomes in COVID-19
Prateek Lohia, Paul Nguyen, Neel Patel, Shweta Kapur
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2020
The immunomodulating role of vitamin D might play a role in COVID-19 disease. We studied the association between vitamin D and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. This is a retrospective cohort study on COVID-19 patients with documented vitamin D levels within the last year. Vitamin D levels were grouped as ! 20 ng/mL or < 20 ng/mL. Main outcomes were mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, new DVT or pulmonary embolism, and ICU admission. A total of 270 patients (mean ± SD) age, 63.81 (14.69) years); 117 (43.3%) males; 216 (80%) Blacks; 139 (51.5%) in 65 and older age group were included. Vitamin D levels were less than 20 ng/mL in 95 (35.2%) patients. During admission, 72 patients (26.7%) died, 59 (21.9%) needed mechanical ventilation, and 87 (32.2%) required ICU. Vitamin D levels showed no significant association with mortality (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.39-1.24; P = 0.21), need for mechanical ventilation (OR = 1.23; 95% CI, 0.68-2.24; P = 0.49), new DVT or PE(OR= 0.92; 95% CI, 0.16-5.11; P = 1.00) or ICU admission (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 0.81-2.34; P = 0.23). We did not find any significant association of vitamin D levels with mortality, the need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and the development of thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Low vitamin D has been associated with increased frequency and severity of respiratory tract infections in the past. Current literature linking clinical outcomes in COVID-19 with low vitamin D is debatable. This study evaluated the role of vitamin D in severe disease outcomes among COVID-19 patients and found no association of vitamin D levels with mortality, the need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and thromboembolism in COVID-19.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS P.L., P.N., and N.P. conceived and designed research; P.L. and S.K. analyzed data; P.L. and S.K. interpreted results of experiments; P.L., P.N., N.P., and S.K. prepared figures; P.L., P.N., and S.K. drafted manuscript; P.L., P.N., N.P., and S.K. edited and revised manuscript; P.L., P.N., N.P., and S.K. approved final version of manuscript.
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