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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 74% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Nikniaz et al.  META ANALYSIS c19early.org Favors vitamin D Favors control

The impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality rate and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Nikniaz et al., Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.34172/PS.2021.13
Mar 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Meta analysis of 4 supplementation studies, finding that vitamin D supplementation "seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory markers". Mortality odds ratio OR 0.264, p = 0.008.
14 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality Argano, Begum, D’Ecclesiis, Hariyanto, Hosseini, Jamilian, Nikniaz, Shah, Sobczak, Xie, mechanical ventilation Hariyanto, Meng, Shah, Xie, ICU admission Hariyanto, Hosseini, Meng, Sartini, Shah, Sobczak, Tentolouris, Xie, hospitalization Argano, severity D’Ecclesiis, Nikniaz, Varikasuvu, Xie, and cases Begum, Sartini, Varikasuvu.
Currently there are 120 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [28‑43%], 16% lower ventilation [-7‑34%], 46% lower ICU admission [28‑60%], 19% lower hospitalization [9‑29%], and 17% fewer cases [9‑24%].
risk of death, 73.6% lower, OR 0.26, p = 0.008, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Nikniaz et al., 9 Mar 2021, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
The impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality rate and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Leila Nikniaz, Mohammad Amin Akbarzadeh, Hossein Hosseinifard, Mohammad-Salar Hosseini
Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.34172/ps.2021.13
Background: Several studies have suggested the positive impact of vitamin D on patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes and mortality rate of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted through the databases of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Ovid, and The Cochrane Library without time and language limitation, until December 16, 2020. The results were screened, and the outcomes of interest were extracted. Using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Tools, the remaining results were appraised critically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software version 2.0. Results: Of the 2311 results, four studies and 259 patients were enrolled, including 139 patients in vitamin D intervention groups. The pooled analysis of three studies, reporting the patients' survival and mortality rate, showed a significantly lower mortality rate among the intervention groups compared with the control groups (OR=0.264, 95% CI=0.099-0.708, p-value=0.008). Two of the studies reported the clinical outcomes based on the World Health Organization's Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI) score for COVID-19, where both of them showed a significant decrease in OSCI score in the vitamin D intervention groups. One study reported a lower rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and one study reported a significant decrease in serum levels of Fibrinogen. Conclusion: Prescribing vitamin D supplementation to patients with COVID-19 infection seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. Further studies are needed to determine the ideal type, dosage, and duration of supplementation.
Author Contributions MAA and MSH contributed to the conceptualization and study design, LN and MSH defined the search strategy and performed the search through the databases, LN and MAA screened the results, LN and MSH critically assessed the studies, HH and MSH performed the analyses. MAA and MSH contributed to preparing the original draft of the manuscript, and LN and HH critically revised the manuscript. Conflict of Interest The authors declare no competing interests regarding the submission and publication of this manuscript. Supplementary Data Supplementary data are available on the journal's web site along with the published article.
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Results: Of the 2311 results, four studies and 259 ' 'patients were enrolled, including 139 patients in vitamin D intervention groups. The pooled ' 'analysis of three studies, reporting the patients’ survival and mortality rate, showed a ' 'significantly lower mortality rate among the intervention groups compared with the control ' 'groups (OR=0.264, 95% CI=0.099–0.708, p-value=0.008). Two of the studies reported the ' 'clinical outcomes based on the World Health Organization’s Ordinal Scale for Clinical ' 'Improvement (OSCI) score for COVID-19, where both of them showed a significant decrease in ' 'OSCI score in the vitamin D intervention groups. One study reported a lower rate of intensive ' 'care unit (ICU) admission, and one study reported a significant decrease in serum levels of ' 'Fibrinogen. Conclusion: Prescribing vitamin D supplementation to patients with COVID-19 ' 'infection seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels ' 'of the inflammatory markers. 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