Meta analysis of 4 supplementation studies, finding that vitamin D supplementation "seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory markers". Mortality odds ratio OR 0.264, p = 0.008.Currently there are 107 vitamin D studies and meta analysis shows:
Abstract: Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2021, 27(Suppl 1), S1-S12
The Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Mortality Rate and
Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and
Leila Nikniaz1 , Mohammad Amin Akbarzadeh2,3,4 , Hossein Hosseinifard5 , Mohammad-Salar Hosseini2,3,4*
Tabriz Health Services Management Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Research Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Iranian Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Centre, Joanna Briggs Institute Affiliated Group, Tabriz, Iran.
Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Received: 26 January 2021
Accepted: 9 March 2021
ePublished: 9 March 2021
Background: Several studies have suggested the positive impact of vitamin D on patients
infected with SARS-CoV-2. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of vitamin D
supplementation on clinical outcomes and mortality rate of COVID-19 patients.
Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted through the databases of PubMed, Scopus,
Web of Knowledge, Embase, Ovid, and The Cochrane Library without time and language
limitation, until December 16, 2020. The results were screened, and the outcomes of interest
were extracted. Using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Tools, the remaining
results were appraised critically. Statistical analysis was performed using the Comprehensive
Meta-Analysis (CMA) software version 2.0.
Results: Of the 2311 results, four studies and 259 patients were enrolled, including 139 patients
in vitamin D intervention groups. The pooled analysis of three studies, reporting the patients’
survival and mortality rate, showed a significantly lower mortality rate among the intervention
groups compared with the control groups (OR=0.264, 95% CI=0.099–0.708, p-value=0.008).
Two of the studies reported the clinical outcomes based on the World Health Organization’s
Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI) score for COVID-19, where both of them
showed a significant decrease in OSCI score in the vitamin D intervention groups. One study
reported a lower rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and one study reported a significant
decrease in serum levels of Fibrinogen.
Conclusion: Prescribing vitamin D supplementation to patients with COVID-19 infection seems
to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory
markers. Further studies are needed to determine the ideal type, dosage, and duration of
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and
treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should
be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention
is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not
provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified
physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and
benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH
provide treatment protocols.