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All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 54% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 65% Case 9% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Hosseini et al.  META ANALYSIS Favors vitamin D Favors control

Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on COVID-19 Related Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Hosseini et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14102134
May 2022  
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Systematic review and meta analysis showing significantly lower ICU admission and mortality with vitamin D treatment. There was no significant difference for cases.
9 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality Argano, D’Ecclesiis, Hariyanto, Hosseini, Nikniaz, Shah, Xie, mechanical ventilation Hariyanto, Shah, Xie, ICU admission Hariyanto, Hosseini, Shah, Tentolouris, Xie, hospitalization Argano, severity D’Ecclesiis, Nikniaz, Varikasuvu, Xie, and cases Varikasuvu.
Currently there are 116 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [27‑43%], 16% lower ventilation [-8‑35%], 47% lower ICU admission [29‑61%], 20% lower hospitalization [8‑29%], and 16% fewer cases [7‑23%].
risk of death, 54.0% lower, RR 0.46, p < 0.001.
risk of ICU admission, 65.0% lower, RR 0.35, p < 0.001.
risk of case, 9.0% lower, RR 0.91, p = 0.11.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hosseini et al., 20 May 2022, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
Contact: (corresponding author),,
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on COVID-19 Related Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Banafsheh Hosseini, Asmae El Abd, Francine M Ducharme
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14102134
The COVID-19 outbreak has rapidly expanded to a global pandemic; however, our knowledge is limited with regards to the protective factors against this infection. The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on COVID-19 related outcomes. A systematic search of relevant papers published until January 2022 was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies of intervention (NRISs). The primary outcomes included the risk of COVID-19 infection (primary prevention studies on uninfected individuals), hospital admission (secondary prevention studies on mild COVID-19 cases), and ICU admission and mortality rate (tertiary prevention studies on hospitalized COVID-19 patients). We identified five studies (one RCT, four NRISs) on primary prevention, with five (two RCTs, three NRISs) on secondary prevention, and 13 (six RCTs, seven NRISs) on tertiary prevention. Pooled analysis showed no significant effect on the risk of COVID-19 infection. No meta-analysis was possible on hospitalization risk due to paucity of data. Vitamin D supplementation was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ICU admission (RR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.62) and mortality (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.70). Vitamin D supplementation had no significant impact on the risk of COVID-19 infection, whereas it showed protective effects against mortality and ICU admission in COVID-19 patients.
Author Contributions: B.H. designed the study, performed the literature search and statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. B.H. and A.E.A. performed data extraction and assessed the quality of the included studies. F.M.D. supervised the conduct of this review from inception to analysis and edited the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Institutional Review Board Statement: Not Applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not Applicable. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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