COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use
Abdulateef et al.
, COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use
, Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273
Survey of 428 recovered COVID-19 patients in Iraq, showing fewer hospital visits for patients on prophylactic vitamin C or D. Hospitalization was lower for those on vitamin C, D, or zinc, without statistical significance.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of hospitalization, 40.9% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.30, treatment 6 of 127 (4.7%), control 24 of 300 (8.0%), NNT 31, unadjusted.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Abdulateef et al., 8 Apr 2021, retrospective, Iraq, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period July 2020 - August 2020, dosage varies.
Abstract: Open Medicine 2021; 16: 591–609
Darya Saeed Abdulateef*, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Jamal Mahmood Salih,
Sangar Mahmoud Osman, Trifa Abdalla Mahmood, Shirwan Hama Salih Omer,
Rana Adnan Ahmed
COVID-19 severity in relation to
sociodemographics and vitamin D use
received January 7, 2021; accepted March 16, 2021
Abstract: Most COVID-19 cases are treated as outpatients,
while the majority of studies on COVID-19 focus on inpatients. Little is known about the self-reporting and selfrating of the disease’s symptoms, and the associations of
prophylactic use of dietary supplements with COVID-19
severity have not been addressed. The aims of this study
are to evaluate COVID-19 severity and to relate them to
sociodemographic characteristics and prophylactic dietary
supplements. An observational patient-based study conducted through an online questionnaire on recovered
COVID-19 patients. The patients were assessed for several
severity parameters, sociodemographic parameters, and
prophylactic dietary supplement use. A total of 428 patients
were evaluated. Age and presence of comorbidities had
positive associations with the severity parameters. The
severe infection group had the highest proportion of patients
stressed about COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Cigarette, but not
hookah, smoking was signiﬁcantly associated with less
severe symptoms. Vitamin D negatively predicted disease
severity (P < 0.05). In conclusion, stress, age, and presence
of comorbidities were the most important positive predictors
of COVID-19 severity, while prophylactic vitamin D use and
smoking were signiﬁcant negative predictors. The use of
protective measures and other prophylactic dietary supplements was not signiﬁcantly associated with symptom
* Corresponding author: Darya Saeed Abdulateef, Department of
Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani,
New–Street-27, Zone 209, P. O. Box: 334, Kurdistan Region,
Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,
Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Jamal Mahmood Salih, Sangar Mahmoud
Osman, Trifa Abdalla Mahmood, Shirwan Hama Salih Omer, Rana
Adnan Ahmed: Department of Physiology, College of Medicine,
University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq
ORCID: Darya Saeed Abdulateef 0000-0001-6516-8611
Open Access. © 2021 Darya Saeed Abdulateef et al., published by De Gruyter.
4.0 International License.
Keywords: COVID-19, symptoms severity, vitamin D,
smoking, online survey
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