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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 13% Improvement Relative Risk Zinc for COVID-19  Abdulateef et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with zinc beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 428 patients in Iraq (July - August 2020) Study underpowered to detect differences Abdulateef et al., Open Medicine, April 2021 Favors zinc Favors control

COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use

Abdulateef et al., Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273
Apr 2021  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p = 0.0000013 from 44 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Survey of 428 recovered COVID-19 patients in Iraq, showing fewer hospital visits for patients on prophylactic vitamin C or D. Hospitalization was lower for those on vitamin C, D, or zinc, without statistical significance.
Although the 13% lower hospitalization is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 20% lower hospitalization [4‑34%] from meta analysis of the 15 hospitalization results to date.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
Study covers zinc, vitamin C, and vitamin D.
risk of hospitalization, 13.1% lower, RR 0.87, p = 0.83, treatment 7 of 111 (6.3%), control 23 of 317 (7.3%), NNT 105, unadjusted.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Abdulateef et al., 8 Apr 2021, retrospective, Iraq, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period July 2020 - August 2020.
This PaperZincAll
COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use
Darya Saeed Abdulateef, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Jamal Mahmood Salih, Sangar Mahmoud Osman, Trifa Abdalla Mahmood, Shirwan Hama Salih Omer, Rana Adnan Ahmed
Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273
Most COVID-19 cases are treated as outpatients, while the majority of studies on COVID-19 focus on inpatients. Little is known about the self-reporting and selfrating of the disease's symptoms, and the associations of prophylactic use of dietary supplements with COVID-19 severity have not been addressed. The aims of this study are to evaluate COVID-19 severity and to relate them to sociodemographic characteristics and prophylactic dietary supplements. An observational patient-based study conducted through an online questionnaire on recovered COVID-19 patients. The patients were assessed for several severity parameters, sociodemographic parameters, and prophylactic dietary supplement use. A total of 428 patients were evaluated. Age and presence of comorbidities had positive associations with the severity parameters. The severe infection group had the highest proportion of patients stressed about COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Cigarette, but not hookah, smoking was significantly associated with less severe symptoms. Vitamin D negatively predicted disease severity (P < 0.05). In conclusion, stress, age, and presence of comorbidities were the most important positive predictors of COVID-19 severity, while prophylactic vitamin D use and smoking were significant negative predictors. The use of protective measures and other prophylactic dietary supplements was not significantly associated with symptom severity.
Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest. Data availability statement: The SPSS file that contains the data of all patients who enrolled in the final analysis was uploaded to Figshare data repository website and its link will be available upon reasonable request. Appendix
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