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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 19% Improvement Relative Risk Abdulateef et al. Vitamin C for COVID-19 Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 427 patients in Iraq (July - August 2020) Study underpowered to detect differences Abdulateef et al., Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273 Favors vitamin C Favors control
COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use
Abdulateef et al., Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273
Abdulateef et al., COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use, Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273
Apr 2021   Source   PDF  
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Survey of 428 recovered COVID-19 patients in Iraq, showing fewer hospital visits for patients on prophylactic vitamin C or D. Hospitalization was lower for those on vitamin C, D, or zinc, without statistical significance.
Although the 19% lower hospitalization is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 17% lower hospitalization [3‑28%] from meta analysis of the 11 hospitalization results to date. This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of hospitalization, 18.7% lower, RR 0.81, p = 0.69, treatment 8 of 132 (6.1%), control 22 of 295 (7.5%), NNT 72, unadjusted.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Abdulateef et al., 8 Apr 2021, retrospective, Iraq, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period July 2020 - August 2020.
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Abstract: Open Medicine 2021; 16: 591–609 Research Article Darya Saeed Abdulateef*, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Jamal Mahmood Salih, Sangar Mahmoud Osman, Trifa Abdalla Mahmood, Shirwan Hama Salih Omer, Rana Adnan Ahmed COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use received January 7, 2021; accepted March 16, 2021 Abstract: Most COVID-19 cases are treated as outpatients, while the majority of studies on COVID-19 focus on inpatients. Little is known about the self-reporting and selfrating of the disease’s symptoms, and the associations of prophylactic use of dietary supplements with COVID-19 severity have not been addressed. The aims of this study are to evaluate COVID-19 severity and to relate them to sociodemographic characteristics and prophylactic dietary supplements. An observational patient-based study conducted through an online questionnaire on recovered COVID-19 patients. The patients were assessed for several severity parameters, sociodemographic parameters, and prophylactic dietary supplement use. A total of 428 patients were evaluated. Age and presence of comorbidities had positive associations with the severity parameters. The severe infection group had the highest proportion of patients stressed about COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Cigarette, but not hookah, smoking was significantly associated with less severe symptoms. Vitamin D negatively predicted disease severity (P < 0.05). In conclusion, stress, age, and presence of comorbidities were the most important positive predictors of COVID-19 severity, while prophylactic vitamin D use and smoking were significant negative predictors. The use of protective measures and other prophylactic dietary supplements was not significantly associated with symptom severity.  * Corresponding author: Darya Saeed Abdulateef, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, New–Street-27, Zone 209, P. O. Box: 334, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq, e-mail:, tel: +96-477-0158-0313 Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Jamal Mahmood Salih, Sangar Mahmoud Osman, Trifa Abdalla Mahmood, Shirwan Hama Salih Omer, Rana Adnan Ahmed: Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq ORCID: Darya Saeed Abdulateef 0000-0001-6516-8611 Open Access. © 2021 Darya Saeed Abdulateef et al., published by De Gruyter. 4.0 International License. Keywords: COVID-19, symptoms severity, vitamin D, smoking, online survey
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