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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 89% Improvement Relative Risk Recovery 81% Vitamin D  Sánchez-Zuno et al.  EARLY TREATMENT  RCT Is early treatment with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 42 patients in Mexico Lower severe cases with vitamin D (p=0.04) Sánchez-Zuno, J. Clinical Medicine, May 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Levels in COVID-19 Outpatients from Western Mexico: Clinical Correlation and Effect of Its Supplementation

Sánchez-Zuno, J. Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10112378
May 2021  
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Very small 42 PCR+ outpatient RCT in Mexico, 22 treated with vitamin D. Most patients had insufficient vitamin D levels, there were more symptoms in those with insufficient levels, and there were less cases with fever or with >3 symptoms at day 14 for treatment with vitamin D.
This is the 4th of 27 COVID-19 RCTs for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.00002.
This is the 38th of 115 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 30 sextillion).
risk of severe case, 89.4% lower, RR 0.11, p = 0.04, treatment 0 of 22 (0.0%), control 4 of 20 (20.0%), NNT 5.0, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), risk of >3 symptoms at day 14.
risk of no recovery, 80.8% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.22, treatment 0 of 22 (0.0%), control 2 of 20 (10.0%), NNT 10.0, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), risk of fever at day 14, Table S1.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sánchez-Zuno et al., 28 May 2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, Mexico, peer-reviewed, 12 authors, dosage 10,000IU days 1-14.
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Vitamin D Levels in COVID-19 Outpatients from Western Mexico: Clinical Correlation and Effect of Its Supplementation
Gabriela Athziri Sánchez-Zuno, Guillermo González-Estevez, Mónica Guadalupe Matuz-Flores, Gabriela Macedo-Ojeda, Jorge Hernández-Bello, Jesús Carlos Mora-Mora, Edsaúl Emilio Pérez-Guerrero, Mariel García-Chagollán, Natali Vega-Magaña, Francisco Javier Turrubiates-Hernández, Andrea Carolina Machado-Sulbaran, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle
Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10112378
Background: The immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D are known to be beneficial in viral infections; it is also known that its deficiency is associated with a prognosis more critical of Coronavirus Disease 2019. This study aimed to determine baseline vitamin D serum concentrations and the effects of its supplementation in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 outpatients. Methods: 42 outpatients were included, 22 of which received a supplement of 10,000 IU of vitamin D3 for 14 days; the remaining 20 outpatients were designated as a control group. Serum levels of transferrin, ferritin, vitamin D, and D-dimer were measured at baseline in both groups. After 14 days, serum levels of total vitamin D were determined in the supplemented group. Results: At baseline, only 19% of infected outpatients had vitamin D levels corresponding to sufficiency. All outpatients with vitamin D insufficiency had at least one symptom associated with the disease, while only 75% of patients with symptoms presented sufficiency. On the seventh and fourteenth day of follow-up, the supplemented group presented fewer symptoms with respect to those non-supplemented. A vitamin D3 dose of 10,000 IU/daily for 14 days was sufficient to raise vitamin D serum concentrations. Conclusions: Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D appear to be linked to the development of symptoms in positive outpatients. Vitamin D supplementation could have significant benefits in the Western Mexican population.
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