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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 73% Improvement Relative Risk Moderate or severe case 41% Yılmaz et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 40 patients in Turkey Study underpowered to detect differences Yılmaz et al., Pediatric Pulmonology, doi:10.1002/ppul.25106 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID-19 in children?
Yılmaz et al., Pediatric Pulmonology, doi:10.1002/ppul.25106
Yılmaz et al., Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID-19 in children?, Pediatric Pulmonology, doi:10.1002/ppul.25106
Oct 2020   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 40 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 45 healthy controls showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients (13.1 vs. 34.8µg/L), and that, within the hospitalized patients, there was more moderate and severe cases for patients with low vitamin D levels (non-statistically significant due to the small numbers).
This is the 18th of 175 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 18 vigintillion).
risk of severe case, 73.4% lower, RR 0.27, p = 1.00, high D levels 0 of 11 (0.0%), low D levels 2 of 29 (6.9%), NNT 14, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), >20ng/ml.
risk of moderate or severe case, 41.4% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.69, high D levels 2 of 11 (18.2%), low D levels 9 of 29 (31.0%), NNT 7.8, >20ng/ml.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Yılmaz et al., 5 Oct 2020, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID‐19 in children?
Kamil Yılmaz, Velat Şen
Pediatric Pulmonology, doi:10.1002/ppul.25106
Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health problem that can result in serious complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical importance of vitamin D deficiency in children with COVID-19. Material and Methods: This study includes 40 patients who were diagnosed to have COVID-19 and hospitalized with the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method, 45 healthy matched control subjects with vitamin D levels. The age of admission, clinical and laboratory data, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD) levels were recorded. Those with vitamin D levels which are below 20 ng/ml were determined as Group 1 and those with ≥20 ng/ml as Group 2. Results: Patients with COVID-19 had significantly lower vitamin D levels 13.14 μg/L (4.19-69.28) than did the controls 34.81 (3.8-77.42) μg/L (p < .001). Patients with COVID-19 also had significantly lower serum phosphorus (4.09 ± 0.73 vs. 5.06 ± 0.93 vs. (U/L) (p < .001)) values compared with the controls. The symptom of fever was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients who had deficient and insufficient vitamin D levels than in patients who had sufficient vitamin D levels (p = .038). There was a negative correlation found between fever symptom and vitamin D level (r = −0.358, p = .023). Conclusion: This is the first to evaluate vitamin D levels and its relationship with clinical findings in pediatric patients with COVID-19. Our results suggest that vitamin D values may be associated with the occurrence and management of the COVID-19 disease by modulating the immunological mechanism to the virus in the pediatric population.
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS The author declares that there are no conflict of interests. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS Kamil Yılmaz and Velat Şen wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. ORCID Kamil Yılmaz
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