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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Progression 63% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Luo et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 895 patients in China Lower progression with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.014) Luo et al., The J. Nutrition, November 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Disease Severity in Chinese People

Luo et al., The Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa332
Nov 2020  
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Retrospective 335 patients in China compared to 560 matched controls showing significanlty lower risk of severe COVID-19 with vitamin D sufficiency (>=30 nmol/L) OR 0.37, p = 0.014.
This is the 27th of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of progression, 63.0% lower, RR 0.37, p = 0.01, high D levels 335, low D levels 560, >30nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Luo et al., 13 Nov 2020, retrospective, China, peer-reviewed, median age 56.0, 5 authors.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Deficiency Is Inversely Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Disease Severity in Chinese People
Xia Luo, Qing Liao, Ying Shen, Huijun Li, Liming Cheng
Background: Vitamin D might have beneficial potential in influencing the natural history of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: The aim was to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID-19 incidence and disease severity in Chinese people. Methods : In a cross-sectional study we retrospectively analyzed 335 COVID-19 patients (median: 56.0; IQR: 43.0-64.0 y) who were admitted to the Wuhan Tongji Hospital between 27 February and 21 March 2020. We also included an age-and sex-matched population of 560 individuals (median: 55; IQR: 49.0-60.0 y) who underwent the physical examination program. Their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured during the same period from 2018-2019. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured for all COVID-19 patients on admission. Severity of COVID-19 was determined based on the level of respiratory involvement. A general linear model with adjustment for covariates was used to compare 25(OH)D concentrations between the COVID-19 and 2018-2019 control groups. Adjusted ORs with 95% CIs for associations between vitamin D status and COVID-19 severity were estimated via multivariable logistic regression. Results: In the general linear model adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and BMI, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly lower among COVID-19 patients than the 2018-2019 controls [ln transformed values of 3.32 ± 0.04 vs. 3.46 ± 0.022 ln (nmol/L), P = 0.014]. Multivariable logistic regression showed that male sex (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 4.82), advanced age (≥65 y) (OR: 4.93; 95% CI: 1.44, 16.9), and vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.23, 6.01) were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggested that vitamin D deficiency impacts COVID-19 hospitalization and severity in the Chinese population.
Fisher's exact test. 3 Information on BMI was available for 45 cases in the discharged group and 4 in the death group. 4 Including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung diseases, chronic kidney disease, and tumors. 5 Serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L. 6 Serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥30 nmol/L.
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