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Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Italy

Cereda et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111055
Nov 2020  
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Mortality -73% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization -17% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Cereda et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 197 patients in Italy Higher mortality with vitamin D (not stat. sig., p=0.14) c19early.org Cereda et al., Nutrition, November 2020 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,500+ studies for 81 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 105 Parkinson's disease patients, 92 caregivers, and 127 hospital inpatients, showing higher, but not statistically significant mortality and hospitalization with treatment. Supplementation was defined as >=25,000IU/month for at least 3 months.
This is the 10th of 122 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 587 sextillion).
30 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000032.
risk of death, 73.0% higher, RR 1.73, p = 0.14, treatment 7 of 18 (38.9%), control 40 of 152 (26.3%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >=25,000IU/month for at least 3 months.
risk of hospitalization, 17.3% higher, RR 1.17, p = 0.68, treatment 7 of 27 (25.9%), control 36 of 170 (21.2%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Cereda et al., 11 Nov 2020, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, mean age 68.8, 7 authors, dosage varies.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Italy
M.D Emanuele Cereda, Laura Bogliolo, Federica Lobascio, Michela Barichella, Anna Lena Zecchinelli, Gianni Pezzoli, Riccardo Caccialanza
Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111055
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
References
Abassi, Knaney, Karram, Heyman, The lung macrophage in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a friend or a foe?, Front Immunol
Ali, Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity, J Infect Public Health
Cereda, Bogliolo, De Stefano, Caccialanza, A brief discussion of the benefit and mechanism of vitamin D supplementation on coronavirus disease
D'avolio, Avataneo, Manca, Cusato, Nicol O et al., 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, Nutrients
Fasano, Cereda, Barichella, Cassani, Ferri et al., COVID-19 in Parkinson's disease patients Living in Lombardy, Italy, Mov Disord
Ghavideldarestani, Honardoost, Khamseh, Role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 infection, doi:10.20944/pre-prints202004.0355
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Maghbooli, Sahraian, Ebrahimi, Pazoki, Kafan et al., Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection, PLoS One
Marik, Kory, Varon, Does vitamin D status impact mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection?, Med Drug Discov
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of vitamin D status and other clinical characteristics with COVID-19 test results, JAMA Netw Open
Pizzini, Aichner, Sahanic, B€ Ohm, Egger et al., Impact of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19-A prospective analysis from the CovILD registry, Nutrients
Reijven, Soeters, Vitamin D: a magic bullet or a myth?, Clin Nutr
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