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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -73% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization -17% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Cereda et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 197 patients in Italy Higher mortality with vitamin D (not stat. sig., p=0.14) Cereda et al., Nutrition, November 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Italy

Cereda et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111055
Nov 2020  
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Retrospective 105 Parkinson's disease patients, 92 caregivers, and 127 hospital inpatients, showing higher, but not statistically significant mortality and hospitalization with treatment. Supplementation was defined as >=25,000IU/month for at least 3 months.
This is the 10th of 118 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 30 sextillion). 29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000035.
risk of death, 73.0% higher, RR 1.73, p = 0.14, treatment 7 of 18 (38.9%), control 40 of 152 (26.3%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >=25,000IU/month for at least 3 months.
risk of hospitalization, 17.3% higher, RR 1.17, p = 0.68, treatment 7 of 27 (25.9%), control 36 of 170 (21.2%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Cereda et al., 11 Nov 2020, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, mean age 68.8, 7 authors, dosage varies.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Italy
M.D Emanuele Cereda, Laura Bogliolo, Federica Lobascio, Michela Barichella, Anna Lena Zecchinelli, Gianni Pezzoli, Riccardo Caccialanza
Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111055
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Abassi, Knaney, Karram, Heyman, The lung macrophage in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a friend or a foe?, Front Immunol
Ali, Role of vitamin D in preventing of COVID-19 infection, progression and severity, J Infect Public Health
Cereda, Bogliolo, De Stefano, Caccialanza, A brief discussion of the benefit and mechanism of vitamin D supplementation on coronavirus disease
D'avolio, Avataneo, Manca, Cusato, Nicol O et al., 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, Nutrients
Fasano, Cereda, Barichella, Cassani, Ferri et al., COVID-19 in Parkinson's disease patients Living in Lombardy, Italy, Mov Disord
Ghavideldarestani, Honardoost, Khamseh, Role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis and severity of COVID-19 infection, doi:10.20944/pre-prints202004.0355
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Maghbooli, Sahraian, Ebrahimi, Pazoki, Kafan et al., Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection, PLoS One
Marik, Kory, Varon, Does vitamin D status impact mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection?, Med Drug Discov
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of vitamin D status and other clinical characteristics with COVID-19 test results, JAMA Netw Open
Pizzini, Aichner, Sahanic, B€ Ohm, Egger et al., Impact of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19-A prospective analysis from the CovILD registry, Nutrients
Reijven, Soeters, Vitamin D: a magic bullet or a myth?, Clin Nutr
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