Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 73% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Im et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 200 patients in South Korea Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.00028) Im et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., August 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19

Im et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018
Aug 2020  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Analysis of 50 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in South Korea showing that 76% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Comparison with 150 matched controls showed a higher probability of cases with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 9th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
Study covers selenium and vitamin D.
risk of case, 73.1% lower, OR 0.27, p < 0.001, high D levels 13 of 50 (26.0%) cases, 85 of 150 (56.7%) controls, NNT 4.3, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Im et al., 11 Aug 2020, retrospective, South Korea, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19
Jae Hyoung Im, Young Soo Je, Jihyeon Baek, Moon-Hyun Chung, Hea Yoon Kwon, Jin-Soo Lee
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
Ethical approval This study was approved by the local ethics committee, which waived the need for informed consent. Conflict of interest All authors declare no conflict of interest related to this study. CRediT authorship contribution statement Jae Hyoung Im: Conceptualization, Writing -original draft. Young Soo Je: Writing -review & editing. Jihyeon Baek: Writingreview & editing. Moon-Hyun Chung: Writing -review & editing. Hea Yoon Kwon: Writing -review & editing, Supervision. Jin-Soo Lee: Conceptualization, Supervision. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary material related to this article can be found, in the online version, at doi: ijid.2020.08.018.
Adamo, Yoshikawa, Ouslander, Coronavirus disease 2019 in geriatrics and long-term care: the ABCDs of COVID-19, J Am Geriatr Soc
Aldridge, Lewer, Katikireddi, Mathur, Pathak et al., Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data, Wellcome Open Res
Autier, Mullie, Macacu, Dragomir, Boniol et al., Effect of vitamin D supplementation on non-skeletal disorders: a systematic review of meta-analyses and randomised trials, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
Barlow, Svoboda, Mackellar, Nash, York et al., Antiviral activity and increased host defense against influenza infection elicited by the human cathelicidin LL-37, PLoS One
Bartley, Vitamin D, innate immunity and upper respiratory tract infection, J Laryngol Otol
Baum, Shor-Posner, Lai, Zhang, Lai et al., High risk of HIVrelated mortality is associated with selenium deficiency, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol
Beck, Levander, Handy, Selenium deficiency and viral infection, J Nutr
Beck, Nelson, Shi, Van Dael, Schiffrin et al., Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection, FASEB J
Bikle, Malmstroem, Schwartz, Current controversies: are free vitamin metabolite levels a more accurate assessment of vitamin D status than total levels?, Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am
Bourgonje, Abdulle, Timens, Hillebrands, Navis et al., Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 and pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), J Pathol
Calder, Carr, Gombart, Eggersdorfer, Optimal Nutritional Status for a Well-Functioning Immune System Is an Important Factor to Protect against Viral Infections, Nutrients
Chandra, Nutrition, immunity, and infection: present knowledge and future directions, Lancet
Daneshkhah, Eshein, Subramanian, Roy, Backman, The Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm in COVID-19 Patients and Associated Mortality, medRxiv
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
Jaspers, Zhang, Brighton, Carson, Styblo et al., Selenium deficiency alters epithelial cell morphology and responses to influenza, Free Radic Biol Med
Kong, Zhu, Shi, Liu, Chen et al., VDR attenuates acute lung injury by blocking Ang-2-Tie-2 pathway and renin-angiotensin system, Mol Endocrinol
Look, Rockstroh, Rao, Kreuzer, Spengler et al., Serum selenium versus lymphocyte subsets and markers of disease progression and inflammatory response in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection, Biol Trace Elem Res
Mantero-Atienza, Beach, Gavancho, Morgan, Shor-Posner et al., Selenium Status of HIV-1 Infected Individuals, Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Nicola, Alsafi, Sohrabi, Kerwan, Al-Jabir et al., The socioeconomic implications of the coronavirus and COVID-19 pandemic: a review, International Journal of Surgery
Paul, Ueland, Selhub, Mechanistic perspective on the relationship between pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and inflammation, Nutr Rev
Plp, pyridoxal-5-phosphate
Rhodes, Subramanian, Kenny, low population mortality from COVID-19 in countries south of latitude 35 degrees North-supports vitamin D as a factor determining severity, Aliment Pharmacol Ther
Rhodes, Subramanian, Laird, Griffin, Kenny, Perspective: Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity-plausibly linked by latitude, ethnicity, impacts on cytokines, ACE2, and thrombosis (R1), J Intern Med
Silva, Furlanetto, Does serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D decrease during acutephase response? A systematic review, Nutr Res
Tay, Poh, Rénia, Macary, Ng, The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention, Nature Reviews Immunology
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop