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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 73% Improvement Relative Risk Im et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 200 patients in South Korea Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.00028) Im et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19
Im et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018
Im et al., Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19, Int. J. Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018
Aug 2020   Source   PDF  
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Analysis of 50 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in South Korea showing that 76% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Comparison with 150 matched controls showed a higher probability of cases with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 9th of 175 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 18 vigintillion).
risk of case, 73.1% lower, OR 0.27, p < 0.001, high D levels 13 of 50 (26.0%) cases, 85 of 150 (56.7%) controls, NNT 4.3, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Im et al., 11 Aug 2020, retrospective, South Korea, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19
Jae Hyoung Im, Young Soo Je, Jihyeon Baek, Moon-Hyun Chung, Hea Yoon Kwon, Jin-Soo Lee
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
Ethical approval This study was approved by the local ethics committee, which waived the need for informed consent. Conflict of interest All authors declare no conflict of interest related to this study. CRediT authorship contribution statement Jae Hyoung Im: Conceptualization, Writing -original draft. Young Soo Je: Writing -review & editing. Jihyeon Baek: Writingreview & editing. Moon-Hyun Chung: Writing -review & editing. Hea Yoon Kwon: Writing -review & editing, Supervision. Jin-Soo Lee: Conceptualization, Supervision. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary material related to this article can be found, in the online version, at doi: ijid.2020.08.018.
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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