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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 86% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Alguwaihes et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 439 patients in Saudi Arabia Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.007) Alguwaihes et al., Cardiovascular Diab.., Dec 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study

Alguwaihes et al., Cardiovascular Diabetology, doi:10.1186/s12933-020-01184-4
Dec 2020  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 119 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 439 diabetic hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia showing lower mortality with vitamin D >12.5 nmol/L, adjusted hazard ratio aHR 0.14, p = 0.007.
This is the 31st of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
risk of death, 85.7% lower, RR 0.14, p = 0.007, high D levels 111, low D levels 328, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, >12.5 nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Alguwaihes et al., 5 Dec 2020, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study
Abdullah M Alguwaihes, Mohammed E Al-Sofiani, Maram Megdad, Sakhar S Albader, Mohammad H Alsari, Ali Alelayan, Saad H Alzahrani, Shaun Sabico, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Anwar A Jammah
Cardiovascular Diabetology, doi:10.1186/s12933-020-01184-4
Background: Information on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized Covid-19 patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) is limited in the Arab region. This study aims to fill this gap.
Supplementary information Supplementary information accompanies this paper at https ://doi. org/10.1186/s1293 3-020-01184 -4. Additional file 1: Table S1 . Presenting symptoms and vital signs of Covid-19 patients according to severity and final outcome. S2 . Clinical characteristics of Covid-19 patients according to severity and outcome. S3 . Factors for outcomes of interest using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. Additional file 2: Table Additional file 3: Table Abbreviations Authors' contributions AMA, MEA and AAJ contributed to the study design and conducting the study. MM, SSA, MHA, AA, and SHA contributed to the data collection and conducting the study. SS wrote the manuscript and performed data analysis. AMA and NMA contributed to the data interpretation and fund acquisition. AMA is the guarantor of this work, has full access to the data and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis. All authors critically reviewed and approved the manuscript in its original, revised and final form. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Ethics approval and consent to participate Informed consent was waived by the Ethics Committee of the College of Medicine in King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (E-20-5090/July 5, 2020). Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains..
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