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Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Ben-Eltriki et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891
Aug 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 81 treatments.
Meta analysis of 24 observational studies with 3,637 participants, showing low vitamin D status associated with a higher risk of death and a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
17 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality1-12, mechanical ventilation1,6,7,12-14, ICU admission1,3,6,7,10,12-16, hospitalization5,12, severity2,4,6,11,17, and cases8,16,17.
Currently there are 122 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [28‑43%], 19% lower ventilation [-3‑36%], 45% lower ICU admission [28‑58%], 19% lower hospitalization [9‑29%], and 17% fewer cases [9‑24%].
Ben-Eltriki et al., 31 Aug 2021, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Mohamed Ben-Eltriki, Robert Hopefl, James M Wright, Subrata Deb
Journal of the American Nutrition Association, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891
Objective: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D), the surrogate marker for vitamin D 3 , serum concentration and COVID-19 has come to the forefront as a potential pathway to improve COVID-19 outcomes. The current evidence remains unclear on the impact of vitamin D status on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. To explore possible association between low 25(OH)D levels and risk of developing severe COVID-19 (i.e. need for invasive mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay, total deaths). We also aimed to understand the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive electronic literature search for any original research study published up to March 30, 2021. For the purpose of this review, low vitamin D status was defined as a range of serum total 25(OH)D levels of <10 to <30 ng/ml. Two independent investigators assessed study eligibility, synthesized evidence, analyzed, critically examined, and interpreted herein. Results: Twenty-four observational studies containing 3637 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.1 years old; 56% were male. Low vitamin D status was statistically associated with higher risk of death (RR, 1.60 (95% CI, 1.10-2.32), higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia (RR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10-2.05). COVID-19 patients with low vitamin D levels had a greater prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, abnormally high serum troponin and peak D-dimer levels, as well as elevated interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein than those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml. Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, we found a potential increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection among patients with low vitamin D levels. There are plausible biological mechanisms supporting the role of vitamin D in COVID-19 severity. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test for potential beneficial effects of vitamin D in COVID-19 outcomes.
Disclosure statement The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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