Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Antihistamines
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
PPIs
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta PPIs Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Ben-Eltriki et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891
Aug 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 81 treatments. c19early.org
Meta analysis of 24 observational studies with 3,637 participants, showing low vitamin D status associated with a higher risk of death and a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
17 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin D treatment for mortality1-12, mechanical ventilation1,6,7,12-14, ICU admission1,3,6,7,10,12-16, hospitalization5,12, severity2,4,6,11,17, and cases8,16,17.
Currently there are 122 vitamin D treatment for COVID-19 studies, showing 36% lower mortality [28‑43%], 19% lower ventilation [-3‑36%], 45% lower ICU admission [28‑58%], 19% lower hospitalization [9‑29%], and 17% fewer cases [9‑24%].
Ben-Eltriki et al., 31 Aug 2021, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Mohamed Ben-Eltriki, Robert Hopefl, James M Wright, Subrata Deb
Journal of the American Nutrition Association, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891
Objective: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D), the surrogate marker for vitamin D 3 , serum concentration and COVID-19 has come to the forefront as a potential pathway to improve COVID-19 outcomes. The current evidence remains unclear on the impact of vitamin D status on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. To explore possible association between low 25(OH)D levels and risk of developing severe COVID-19 (i.e. need for invasive mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay, total deaths). We also aimed to understand the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive electronic literature search for any original research study published up to March 30, 2021. For the purpose of this review, low vitamin D status was defined as a range of serum total 25(OH)D levels of <10 to <30 ng/ml. Two independent investigators assessed study eligibility, synthesized evidence, analyzed, critically examined, and interpreted herein. Results: Twenty-four observational studies containing 3637 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.1 years old; 56% were male. Low vitamin D status was statistically associated with higher risk of death (RR, 1.60 (95% CI, 1.10-2.32), higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia (RR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10-2.05). COVID-19 patients with low vitamin D levels had a greater prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, abnormally high serum troponin and peak D-dimer levels, as well as elevated interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein than those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml. Conclusions: In this meta-analysis, we found a potential increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection among patients with low vitamin D levels. There are plausible biological mechanisms supporting the role of vitamin D in COVID-19 severity. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test for potential beneficial effects of vitamin D in COVID-19 outcomes.
Disclosure statement The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
References
Abrishami, Dalili, Torbati, Asgari, Arab-Ahmadi et al., Possible association of vitamin D status with lung involvement and outcome in patients with COVID-19: a retrospective study, Eur J Nutr, doi:10.1007/s00394-020-02411-0
Adami, Giollo, Fassio, Benini, Bertoldo et al., Vitamin D and disease severity in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), Reumatismo, doi:10.4081/reumatismo.2020.1333
Angelidi, Belanger, Lorinsky, Karamanis, Chamorro-Pareja et al., Vitamin D status is associated with in-hospital mortality and mechanical ventilation: a cohort of COVID-19 hospitalized patients, Mayo Clin Proc, doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.001
Anjum, Examine the association between severe Vitamin D deficiency and mortality in patients with Covid-19, Pak J Med Health Sci
Baeke, Takiishi, Korf, Gysemans, Mathieu, Vitamin D: modulator of the immune system, Curr Opin Pharmacol, doi:10.1016/j.coph.2010.04.001
Bagri, Dahri, Legal, Hospital pharmacists' perceptions and decision-making related to drug-drug interactions, Can J Hosp Pharm
Baktash, Hosack, Patel, Shah, Kandiah et al., Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with COVID-19, Postgrad Med J
Bassatne, Basbous, Chakhtoura, El Zein, Rahme et al., The link between COVID-19 and vitamin D (VIVID): a systematic review and meta-analysis, Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154753
Beard, Bearden, Striker, Vitamin D and the anti-viral state, J Clin Virol, doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2010.12.006
Bhowmik, Tirtha, Iraganaboina, Eluru, A comprehensive analysis of COVID-19 transmission and mortality rates at the county level in the United States considering socio-demographics, health indicators, mobility trends and health care infrastructure attributes, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0249133
Carpagnano, Lecce, Quaranta, Zito, Buonamico et al., Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19, J Endocrinol Invest, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x
Castillo, Costa, Barrios, Díaz, Miranda et al., Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751
Cereda, Bogliolo, Klersy, Lobascio, Masi et al., Vitamin D 25OH deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital, Clin Nutr, doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.055
Charoenngam, Shirvani, Reddy, Vodopivec, Apovian et al., Association of vitamin D status with hospital morbidity and mortality in adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19, Endocr Pract
Chen, Zhou, Dong, Qu, Gong et al., Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
Cheng, Levine, Bell, Mangelsdorf, Russell, Genetic evidence that the human CYP2R1 enzyme is a key vitamin D 25-hydroxylase, Proc Natl Acad Sci, doi:10.1073/pnas.0402490101
De Las Heras, Gimenez, Ferder, Manucha, Lahera, Implications of oxidative stress and potential role of mitochondrial dysfunction in COVID-19: therapeutic effects of vitamin D, Antioxidants, doi:10.3390/antiox9090897
De Lucena, Da, Santos, De Lima, De et al., Mechanism of inflammatory response in associated comorbidities in COVID-19, Diabetes Metab Syndr, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.025
Demir, Demir, Aygun, Vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID-19 positivity and severity of the disease, J Med Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.26832
Dong, Mo, Hu, Qi, Jiang et al., Epidemiology of COVID-19 among children in China, Pediatrics, doi:10.1542/peds.2020-0702
Drincic, Fuller, Heaney, Armas, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D response to graded vitamin D 3 supplementation among obese adults, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, doi:10.1210/jc.2012-4103
Ejaz, Alsrhani, Zafar, Javed, Junaid et al., COVID-19 and comorbidities: deleterious impact on infected patients, J Infect Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.014
Garg, Kalra, Mahalle, Defining vitamin D deficiency, using surrogate markers, Indian J Endocrinol Metab, doi:10.4103/2230-8210.117189
Gavioli, Miyashita, Hassaneen, Siau, An evaluation of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D Levels in patients with COVID-19 in New York City, J Am Coll Nutr
Giustina, Bouillon, Binkley, Sempos, Adler et al., Controversies in vitamin D: a statement from the third international conference, JBMR Plus, doi:10.1002/jbm4.10417
Griffin, Hewison, Hopkin, Kenny, Quinton et al., Preventing vitamin D deficiency during the COVID-19 pandemic: UK definitions of vitamin D sufficiency and recommended supplement dose are set too low, Clin Med (Lond)), doi:10.7861/clinmed.2020-0858
Griffin, Xing, Kumar, Vitamin D and its analogs as regulators of immune activation and antigen presentation, Annu Rev Nutr, doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.23.011702.073114
Hernandez, Nan, Fernandez-Ayala, Garcia-Unzueta, Hernandez-Hernandez et al., Vitamin D status in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa733
Holick, Binkley, Bischoff-Ferrari, Gordon, Hanley et al., Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0385
Jain, Chaurasia, Sengar, Singh, Mahor et al., Analysis of vitamin D level among asymptomatic and critically ill COVID-19 patients and its correlation with inflammatory markers, Sci Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77093-z
Jevalikar, Mithal, Singh, Sharma, Farooqui et al., Lack of association of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with disease severity and mortality in Indian patients hospitalized for COVID-19, Sci Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85809-y
Ji, Zhu, Zhong, Li, Pang et al., Association of elevated inflammatory markers and severe COVID-19: a meta-analysis, Medicine, doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000023315
Karahan, Katkat, Impact of serum 25(OH) vitamin D level on mortality in patients with COVID-19 in Turkey, J Nutr Health Aging, doi:10.1007/s12603-020-1479-0
Kerget, Kerget, Kızıltunç, Koçak, Araz et al., Evaluation of the relationship of serum vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with clinical course and prognosis, Tuberk Toraks, doi:10.5578/tt.70027
Levin, Hanage, Owusu-Boaitey, Cochran, Walsh et al., Assessing the age specificity of infection fatality rates for COVID-19: systematic review, meta-analysis, and public policy implications, Eur J Epidemiol, doi:10.1007/s10654-020-00698-1
Liberati, Altman, Tetzlaff, Mulrow, Gøtzsche et al., The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.b2700
Lui, Yip, Wong, Chow, Ho et al., Significantly lower case-fatality ratio of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong-a territory-wide cohort study, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1187
Luo, Liao, Shen, Li, Cheng, Vitamin D deficiency is inversely associated with COVID-19 incidence and disease severity in Chinese people, J Nutr, doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa332
Maghbooli, Sahraian, Ebrahimi, Pazoki, Kafan et al., Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239799
Medrano, Carrillo-Cruz, Montero, Perez-Simon, Vitamin D: effect on haematopoiesis and immune system and clinical applications, Int J Mol Sci, doi:10.3390/ijms19092663
Mercola, Grant, Wagner, Evidence regarding vitamin D and risk of COVID-19 and its severity, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113361
Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.b2535
Munshi, Hussein, Toraih, Elshazli, Jardak et al., Vitamin D insufficiency as a potential culprit in critical COVID-19 patients, J Med Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.26360
Naserghandi, Allameh, Saffarpour, All about COVID-19 in brief, New Microbes New Infect, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100678
Onder, Rezza, Brusaferro, Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4683
Orchard, Baldry, Nasim-Mohi, Monck, Saeed et al., Vitamin D levels and intensive care unit outcomes of a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients, Clin Chem Lab Med, doi:10.1515/cclm-2020-1567
Pereira, Vitamin D deficiency aggravates COVID-19: systematic review and meta-analysis, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1841090
Pike, Christakos, Biology and mechanisms of action of the vitamin D hormone, Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2017.07.001
Piotrowska, Wierzbicka, Żmijewski, Vitamin D in the skin physiology and pathology, Acta Biochim Pol, doi:10.18388/abp.2015_1104
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Dreher, Boxberger, Vitamin D deficiency and outcome of COVID-19 patients, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092757
Ricci, Pagliuca, ' Ascanio, Innammorato, Vitis et al., Circulating vitamin D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in COVID-19 patients, Respir Res, doi:10.1186/s12931-021-01666-3
Rosen, Abrams, Aloia, Brannon, Clinton et al., IOM committee members respond to Endocrine Society vitamin D guideline, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, doi:10.1210/jc.2011-2218
Shereen, Khan, Kazmi, Bashir, Siddique, COVID-19 infection: origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses, J Adv Res, doi:10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005
Smet, Smet, Herroelen, Gryspeerdt, Martens, Serum 25(OH)D level on hospital admission associated with COVID-19 stage and mortality, Am J Clin Pathol, doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqaa252
Sreedharan, Nair, Muttappallymyalil, Gopakumar, Eapen et al., Case fatality rates of COVID-19 across the globe: are the current draconian measures justified?, Z Gesundh Wiss, doi:10.1007/s10389-021-01491-4
Stroehlein, Wallqvist, Iannizzi, Mikolajewska, Metzendorf et al., Vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID-19: a living systematic review, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD015043
Takeyama, Kitanaka, Sato, Kobori, Yanagisawa et al., 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and vitamin D synthesis, Science, doi:10.1126/science.277.5333.1827
Tehrani, Khabiri, Moradi, Mosavat, Khabiri, Evaluation of vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients referred to Labafinejad hospital in Tehran and its relationship with disease severity and mortality, Clin Nutr Espen, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.014
Vassiliou, Jahaj, Pratikaki, Orfanos, Dimopoulou et al., Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on admission to the intensive care unit may predispose COVID-19 pneumonia patients to a higher 28-day mortality risk: a pilot study on a Greek ICU Cohort, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123773
Volkert, Beck, Cederholm, Goisser, Hooper et al., ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition and hydration in geriatrics, Clin Nutr, doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2018.05.024
Walker, Deb, Ling, Wang, Assessing the elevation of cardiac biomarkers and the severity of COVID-19 infection: a meta-analysis, J Pharm Pharm Sci, doi:10.18433/jpps31501
White, Vitamin D signaling, infectious diseases, and regulation of innate immunity, Infect Immun, doi:10.1128/IAI.00353-08
Xu, Soruri, Gieseler, Peters, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 exerts opposing effects to IL-4 on MHC class-II antigen expression, accessory activity, and phagocytosis of human monoc y t e s . S c a n d J Im mu n, doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.1993.tb03237.x
Xu, Yang, Chen, Luo, Zhang et al., Vitamin D alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via regulation of the renin-angiotensin system, Mol Med Rep, doi:10.3892/mmr.2017.7546
Ye, Tang, Liao, Shaw, Deng et al., Does serum vitamin D level affect COVID-19 infection and its severity?-A case-control study, J Am Coll Nutr
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 20]], 'date-time': '2024-04-20T15:51:07Z', 'timestamp': 1713628267157}, 'reference-count': 68, 'publisher': 'Informa UK Limited', 'issue': '7', 'content-domain': {'domain': ['www.tandfonline.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 10, 3]]}, 'DOI': '10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 31]], 'date-time': '2021-08-31T21:08:16Z', 'timestamp': 1630444096000}, 'page': '679-689', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/tandf_crossmark_01', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 13, 'title': 'Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A ' 'Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies', 'prefix': '10.1080', 'volume': '41', 'author': [ { 'given': 'Mohamed', 'family': 'Ben-Eltriki', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Cochrane Hypertension Review Group, University of British ' 'Columbia, Vancouver, Canada'}, { 'name': 'Therapeutics Initiative, Department of Anesthesiology, ' 'Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of ' 'British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada'}]}, { 'given': 'Robert', 'family': 'Hopefl', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, ' 'Larkin University, Miami, Florida, USA'}]}, { 'given': 'James M.', 'family': 'Wright', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Cochrane Hypertension Review Group, University of British ' 'Columbia, Vancouver, Canada'}, { 'name': 'Therapeutics Initiative, Department of Anesthesiology, ' 'Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of ' 'British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada'}, { 'name': 'Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of ' 'British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada'}]}, { 'given': 'Subrata', 'family': 'Deb', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, ' 'Larkin University, Miami, Florida, USA'}]}], 'member': '301', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 31]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': 'CIT0001', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) ' 'Dashboard. 2020. [cited 2020 October 14]; https://covid19.who.int/.'}, {'key': 'CIT0002', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100678'}, {'key': 'CIT0003', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005'}, {'key': 'CIT0004', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s10654-020-00698-1'}, {'key': 'CIT0005', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.4683'}, {'key': 'CIT0006', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0249133'}, {'key': 'CIT0007', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa1187'}, {'key': 'CIT0008', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s10389-021-01491-4'}, {'key': 'CIT0009', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7'}, {'key': 'CIT0010', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jiph.2020.07.014'}, {'key': 'CIT0011', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1542/peds.2020-0702'}, {'key': 'CIT0012', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ecl.2017.07.001'}, {'key': 'CIT0013', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.18388/abp.2015_1104'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': 'CIT0014', 'first-page': '288', 'volume': '72', 'author': 'Bagri H', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Can J Hosp Pharm'}, {'key': 'CIT0015', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1073/pnas.0402490101'}, {'key': 'CIT0016', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1126/science.277.5333.1827'}, {'key': 'CIT0017', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4103/2230-8210.117189'}, {'key': 'CIT0018', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1128/IAI.00353-08'}, { 'key': 'CIT0019', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1146/annurev.nutr.23.011702.073114'}, { 'key': 'CIT0020', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1365-3083.1993.tb03237.x'}, {'key': 'CIT0021', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.coph.2010.04.001'}, {'key': 'CIT0022', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.18433/jpps31501'}, {'key': 'CIT0023', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.b2535'}, {'key': 'CIT0024', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.b2700'}, {'key': 'CIT0025', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s00394-020-02411-0'}, {'key': 'CIT0026', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4081/reumatismo.2020.1333'}, {'key': 'CIT0027', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.001'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'CIT0028', 'first-page': '1184', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'Anjum S.', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Pak J Med Health Sci'}, { 'key': 'CIT0029', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '442', 'DOI': '10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712', 'volume': '97', 'author': 'Baktash V', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Postgrad Med J'}, {'key': 'CIT0030', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x'}, {'key': 'CIT0031', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.055'}, {'key': 'CIT0032', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eprac.2021.02.013'}, {'key': 'CIT0033', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26832'}, {'key': 'CIT0034', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/ajcp/aqaa252'}, {'key': 'CIT0035', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/07315724.2020.1869626'}, {'key': 'CIT0036', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1210/clinem/dgaa733'}, {'key': 'CIT0037', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-021-85809-y'}, {'key': 'CIT0038', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12603-020-1479-0'}, {'key': 'CIT0039', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/jn/nxaa332'}, {'key': 'CIT0040', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0239799'}, {'key': 'CIT0041', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1515/cclm-2020-1567'}, {'key': 'CIT0042', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12092757'}, {'key': 'CIT0043', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/s12931-021-01666-3'}, {'key': 'CIT0044', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.014'}, {'key': 'CIT0045', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12123773'}, {'key': 'CIT0046', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/07315724.2020.1826005'}, {'key': 'CIT0047', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.5578/tt.70027'}, {'key': 'CIT0048', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-020-77093-z'}, {'key': 'CIT0049', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/ijms19092663'}, {'key': 'CIT0050', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154753'}, {'key': 'CIT0051', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/10408398.2020.1841090'}, {'key': 'CIT0052', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26360'}, {'key': 'CIT0053', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12113361'}, {'key': 'CIT0054', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/antiox9090897'}, {'key': 'CIT0055', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.025'}, {'key': 'CIT0056', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jcv.2010.12.006'}, {'key': 'CIT0057', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3892/mmr.2017.7546'}, {'key': 'CIT0058', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1097/MD.0000000000023315'}, {'key': 'CIT0059', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/jbm4.10417'}, {'key': 'CIT0060', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1210/jc.2011-0385'}, {'key': 'CIT0061', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1210/jc.2011-2218'}, { 'key': 'CIT0062', 'unstructured': 'National Institutes of Health (NIH). Office of Dietary Supplements. ' 'Vitamin D Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. 2021. [cited June 15, ' '2021]. ' 'https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Vitamin%20D-HealthProfessional/.'}, {'key': 'CIT0063', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.clnu.2018.05.024'}, { 'key': 'CIT0064', 'volume-title': 'COVID-19 rapid guideline: vitamin D', 'author': 'National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Clinical Guidelines', 'year': '2020'}, {'key': 'CIT0065', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.7861/clinmed.2020-0858'}, {'key': 'CIT0066', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1210/jc.2012-4103'}, {'key': 'CIT0067', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751'}, {'key': 'CIT0068', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/14651858.CD015043'}], 'container-title': 'Journal of the American Nutrition Association', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 11, 8]], 'date-time': '2023-11-08T02:56:15Z', 'timestamp': 1699412175000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 31]]}, 'references-count': 68, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '7', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 10, 3]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2769-7061', '2769-707X'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'Journal of the American Nutrition Association', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 8, 31]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': 'The publishing and review policy for this title is described in its Aims & ' 'Scope.', 'order': 1, 'name': 'peerreview_statement', 'label': 'Peer Review Statement'}, { 'value': 'http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=uacn21', 'URL': 'http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=uacn21', 'order': 2, 'name': 'aims_and_scope_url', 'label': 'Aim & Scope'}, { 'value': '2021-04-09', 'order': 0, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2021-07-01', 'order': 1, 'name': 'revised', 'label': 'Revised', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2021-07-01', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}, { 'value': '2021-08-31', 'order': 3, 'name': 'published', 'label': 'Published', 'group': {'name': 'publication_history', 'label': 'Publication History'}}]}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit