Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 83% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Karahan et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 149 patients in Turkey Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p<0.000001) Karahan et al., J. Nutr. Health Aging, Oct 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Impact of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Level on Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Turkey

Karahan et al., J. Nutr. Health Aging, doi:10.1007/s12603-020-1479-0
Oct 2020  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Retrospective 149 COVID-19 patients, 69.1% with vitamin D deficiency, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with higher mortality.
This is the 17th of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of death, 82.5% lower, RR 0.17, p < 0.001, high D levels 5 of 46 (10.9%), low D levels 64 of 103 (62.1%), NNT 2.0, >20nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Karahan et al., 5 Oct 2020, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin DAll
Serkan Karahan, F Katkat
Background: Because of the lack of sufficient data, we aimed to investigate the role of serum 25(OH) vitamin D level on COVID severity and related mortality. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Data, including sociodemographic features, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data, and 25(OH) vitamin D levels were recorded for each study participant. Patients were stratified into different vitamin D groups; Normal (Serum 25(OH) vitamin D level >30 ng/mL), Vitamin D insufficiency (21-29 ng/mL), and deficiency (<20 ng/ mL). The severity of COVID was classified according to the Chinese Clinical Guideline for classification of COVID-19 severity. Mortality data were determined for participants. Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Results: Overall, 149 COVID-19 patients (females 45.6%, mean age 63.5 ± 15.3 (range 24-90 years) years) were included. Fortyseven patients (31.5%) had moderate COVID-19, whereas 102 patients (68.5%) had severe-critical COVID-19. The mean 25(OH) vitamin D level was 15.2 ± 10.3 ng/mL. Thirty-four (22.8%) and 103 (69.1%) patients had vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, respectively. Mean serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was significantly lower in patients with severe-critical COVID-19 compared with moderate COVID-19 (10.1 ± 6.2 vs. 26.3 ± 8.4 ng/mL, respectively, p<0.001). Vitamin D insufficiency was present in 93.1% of the patients with severe-critical COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only lymphocyte count, white blood cell count, serum albumin and, 25(OH) vitamin D level were independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion: Serum 25(OH) vitamin D was independently associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients.
Conflict of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical standards: The study protocol was approved by the Hospital Clinical Studies Ethical Committee (2020. and 12 June 2020).
Aglipay, Birken, Parkin, Loeb, Thorpe et al., Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Wintertime Vitamin D Supplementation on Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Young Healthy Children, JAMA
Alipio, Vitamin D Supplementation Could Possibly Improve Clinical Outcomes of Patients Infected with Coronavirus, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3571484
Aranow, Vitamin D and the immune system, J Investig Med
Arihiro, Nakashima, Matsuoka, Suto, Uchiyama et al., Randomized Trial of Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent Seasonal Influenza and Upper Respiratory Infection in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis
Aygun, Vitamin D can prevent COVID-19 infection-induced multiple organ damage, Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol
Cannell, Vieth, Umhau, Holick, Grant et al., Epidemic influenza and vitamin D, Epidemiol Infect
Cantorna, Snyder, Lin, Yang, Vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D regulation of T cells, Nutrients
D'avolio, Avataneo, Manca, Cusato, Nicolo et al., 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Lower in Patients with Positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, Nutrients
Daneshkhah, Agrawal, Eshein, Subramanian, Roy et al., The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 Patients, medRxiv
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Baggerly, French et al., Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths, Nutrients
Guan, Liang, Zhao, Liang, Chen et al., Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis, Eur Respir J
Hastie, Mackay, Ho, Celis-Morales, Katikireddi et al., Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank, Diabetes Metab Syndr
Holick, Vitamin D status: measurement, interpretation, and clinical application, Ann Epidemiol
Hueniken, Aglipay, Birken, Parkin, Loeb et al., Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptom Severity in Healthy Children, Pediatr Infect Dis J
Ilie, Stefanescu, Smith, The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality, Aging Clin Exp Res
Jeffery, Burke, Mura, Zheng, Qureshi et al., 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and IL-2 combine to inhibit T cell production of inflammatory cytokines and promote development of regulatory T cells expressing CTLA-4 and FoxP3, J Immunol
Kara, Ekiz, Ricci, Kara, Chang et al., Scientific Strabismus' or Two Related Pandemics: COVID-19 & Vitamin D Deficiency, Br J Nutr
Kaur, Ferguson, Freitas, Miller, Bemben et al., Association of Vitamin D Status with Chronic Disease Risk Factors and Cognitive Dysfunction in
Liu, Chen, Lin, Han, Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients, J Infect
Marik, Kory, Varon, Does vitamin D status impact mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection?, Med Drug Discov
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Greenberg, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ
Raharusun, Priambada, Sadiah, Budiarti, Agung et al., Patterns of COVID-19 Mortality and Vitamin D: An Indonesian Study, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3585561
Rhodes, Subramanian, Laird, Kenny, Editorial: low population mortality from COVID-19 in countries south of latitude 35 degrees North supports vitamin D as a factor determining severity, Aliment Pharmacol Ther
Rondanelli, Miccono, Lamburghini, Avanzato, Riva et al., Self-Care for Common Colds: The Pivotal Role of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive Clusters (Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds-Practical Advice on Dosages and on the Time to Take These Nutrients/Botanicals in order to Prevent or Treat Common Colds, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
Sharifi, Vahedi, Nedjat, Rafiei, Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Effect of singledose injection of vitamin D on immune cytokines in ulcerative colitis patients: a randomized placebo-controlled trial, APMIS
Teymoori-Rad, Shokri, Salimi, Marashi, The interplay between vitamin D and viral infections, Rev Med Virol
Wang, Li, Lu, Huang, Does comorbidity increase the risk of patients with COVID-19: evidence from meta-analysis, Aging
Ye, Wang, Mao, The pathogenesis and treatment of the `Cytokine Storm' in COVID-19, J Infect
Zheng, Peng, Xu, Zhao, Liu et al., Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis, J Infect
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop