Vitamin D 25OH deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital
Cereda et al.
, Vitamin D 25OH deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital
, Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.055
Prospective cohort study of 129 adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients finding patients with vitamin D levels >20ng/mL had increased mortality after adjustment. This study does not account for the risk of having a serious enough case to be hospitalized, and adjustments for factors correlated with vitamin D levels could obscure a potential association with vitamin D levels.
risk of death, 120.0% higher, RR 2.20, p = 0.04, high D levels 10 of 30 (33.3%), low D levels 24 of 99 (24.2%), inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL.
risk of ICU admission, 86.7% lower, RR 0.13, p = 0.59, high D levels 0 of 30 (0.0%), low D levels 5 of 99 (5.1%), NNT 20, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Cereda et al., 1 Nov 2020, prospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 13 authors.
Abstract: Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with
free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the
company's public news and information website.
Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related
research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this
research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other
publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights
for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means
with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are
granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre
Clinical Nutrition 40 (2021) 2469e2472
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/clnu
Vitamin D 25OH deﬁciency in COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary
Emanuele Cereda a, 1, Laura Bogliolo b, 1, Catherine Klersy c, Federica Lobascio a,
Sara Masi a, Silvia Crotti a, Ludovico De Stefano b, Raffaele Bruno d,
Angelo Guido Corsico e, f, Antonio Di Sabatino g, Stefano Perlini f, h,
Carlomaurizio Montecucco b, f,
Riccardo Caccialanza a, *, 1, on behalf of the NUTRI-COVID19 IRCCS San Matteo Pavia
Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
Division of Rheumatology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
Division of Infectious Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo and Department of Medical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Science,
University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Pneumology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Department of Internal Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo and University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Emergency Medicine Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
a r t i c l e i n f o
s u m m a r y
Received 2 September 2020
Accepted 27 October 2020
Background & aims: Great interest has been raised by the possible protective role of vitamin D in
coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but objective data on 25(OH)vitamin D deﬁciency in hospitalized
COVID-19 patients are not conclusive.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 25(OH)vitamin D deﬁciency in COVID-19
patients admitted to an Italian referral hospital and explore its association with clinical outcomes and
the markers of disease severity.
Methods: In this single-center cohort study, 129 consecutive adult COVID-19 patients hospitalized in an
Italian referral center were enrolled from March to April 2020. 25(OH)Vitamin D serum levels were
assessed 48 h since hospital admission and categorized into: normal (30 ng/mL), insufﬁcient (<30 20 ng/mL), moderately deﬁcient (<20 - 10 ng/mL), severely deﬁcient (<10 ng/mL).
Results: The prevalence of 25(OH)vitamin D insufﬁciency, moderate deﬁciency and severe deﬁciency was
13.2%, 22.5% and 54.3%, respectively.
25(OH)Vitamin D deﬁciency (<20 ng/mL) was not associated with COVID-19 clinical features and outcomes. Unexpectedly, after adjusting for major confounders, a signiﬁcant positive..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and
treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should
be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention
is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not
provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified
physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and
benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC
provide treatment protocols.