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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 66% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Matin et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective study in Iran Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.000013) Matin et al., Archives of Microbiology, Jul 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The sufficient vitamin D and albumin level have a protective effect on COVID-19 infection

Matin et al., Archives of Microbiology, doi:10.1007/s00203-021-02482-5
Jul 2021  
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Case control study with 191 COVID-19 patients and 203 healthy controls in Iran, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 infection and severity. 84.4% of COVID-19 patients had vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 82nd of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of case, 66.1% lower, OR 0.34, p < 0.001, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels, case control OR, >20ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Matin et al., 30 Jul 2021, retrospective, case control, Iran, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
The sufficient vitamin D and albumin level have a protective effect on COVID-19 infection
Somaieh Matin, Nasrin Fouladi, Yasamin Pahlevan, Vahid Asghariazar, Soheila Molaei, Hamid Afzoun Khiavi, Mohamad Negaresh, Elham Safarzadeh
Archives of Microbiology, doi:10.1007/s00203-021-02482-5
There is limited information regarding the protective factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This research is focused on analyzing the role of vitamin D and albumin in the severity, progression, or possible prevention of COVID-19 infection. In this case-control study, 191 patients and 203 healthy individuals were enrolled. Blood samples were taken to test the albumin and vitamin D levels of both groups. Our results show a direct association of vitamin D deficiency with the infection of COVID-19 and severity. According to our findings, 84.4% of patients with COVID-19 in this study had vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, the average level of albumin was significantly decreased in those infected patients who had respiratory symptoms. In the present study, a considerable negative correlation was established between the levels of vitamin D and the severity of COVID-19 infection. This reflects on the immunomodulatory and inhibitory nature of vitamin D to the viral replication. Keywords COVID-19 • Vitamin D • Albumin • Coronavirus Abbreviations ACE-2 Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 CYP27B1 Vitamin D activating enzyme 1-α-hydroxylase VDR Vitamin D receptor NET Neutrophil extracellular traps ROS Reactive oxygen species RT-PCR Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction CT Computed tomography GGO Ground-glass opacity ORs Odds ratios VDR Vitamin D and its functional receptors VDRGS Vitamin D-related genes Communicated by Erko Stackebrandt.
Conclusion The overall results in our study have shown that a significant negative correlation is established in between the mean vitamin D level and the severity of COVID-19 disease. Therefore, it is concluded that the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D potentially contribute to inhibit the viral replication in the body, to confer the direct protection against the infection. Our findings strongly suggest that the adequate level (≥ 20 to ≤ 50 µg/ml) of vitamin D is associated with probable and natural resistance against the COVID-19 disease. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. org/ 10. 1007/ s00203-021-02482-5. Author contributions SM, NF, and ES conceived and planned the study; VA, HAK, and MN carried out the experiment and collected the available literature; YP and SM and ES prepared the manuscript, analyzed the statistical data and verified the accuracy of the tests. Declarations Conflict of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the accuracy and integrity of the paper content. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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