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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 92% Improvement Relative Risk Diet for COVID-19  Moludi et al.  Prophylaxis Is a healthy diet beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in Iran (June - July 2020) Fewer cases with healthier diets (p<0.000001) Moludi et al., British J. Nutrition, Aug 2021 Favors healthy diet Favors control

The relationship between Dietary Inflammatory Index and disease severity and inflammatory status: a case–control study of COVID-19 patients

Moludi et al., British Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1017/S0007114521003214
Aug 2021  
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Retrospective 60 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 60 controls in Iran, showing pro-inflammatory diets associated with COVID-19 cases and severity. IR.KUMS.REC.1399·444, IR.TBZMED.REC.1399·225.
risk of case, 91.6% lower, OR 0.08, p < 0.001, inverted to make OR<1 favor higher quality diet, case control OR, model 3, E-DII tertile 1 vs. tertile 3.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Moludi et al., 23 Aug 2021, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, study period June 2020 - July 2020.
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The relationship between Dietary Inflammatory Index and disease severity and inflammatory status: a case–control study of COVID-19 patients
Jalal Moludi, Shaimaa A Qaisar, Mohammad Alizadeh, Hamed Jafari Vayghan, Mohammad Naemi, Akram Rahimi, Rihaneh Mousavi
British Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1017/s0007114521003214
Numerous studies have revealed strong relationships between COVID-19 and inflammation. However, the imminent link between diet-related inflammation and the COVID-19 risk has not been addressed before. So, we explored the capability of the Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) to predict the inflammatory markers, incidence and severity of COVID-19. We conducted a case-control study consisting of 120 adults; they had been admitted for COVID-19 at hospital during June and July, 2020. The E-DII score was calculated based on the dietary intake, which was evaluated by a 138-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum levels of inflammatory markers including the Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and White blood cells (WBCs) differential were measured. Severity of disease was assessed by chest radiology criteria. Patients with the maximum pro-inflammatory energy adjusted E-DII score had 7•26 times greater odds of developing COVID-19, as compared to those in tertiles 1 (E-DII T3 v. E-DII T1 : OR = 7•26; 95 % CI 2•64 to 9•94, P < 0•001). Also, a positive association between E-DII and C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed (B E-DII = 1•37, 95 % CI 0•72, 2•02), such that with each unit increase in E-E-DII, the CRP levels were increased by 1•37 units. Furthermore, a significant association was found between E-DII and the severity of disease (B E-DII = 0•03, 95 % CI 0•01, 0•06. 0•024). Patients consuming a diet with a higher pro-inflammatory potential were at a greater risk of COVID-19 occurrence; also, the severity of disease was elevated with a high score inflammatory diet.
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