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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 8% Improvement Relative Risk c19early.org/d Louca et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Prophylaxis Does vitamin D reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 372,720 patients in the United Kingdom Fewer cases with vitamin D (p=0.0007) Louca et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app

Louca et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250 (date from earlier preprint)
Louca et al., Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the.., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250 (date from earlier preprint)
Nov 2020   Source   PDF  
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Survey analysis of dietary supplements showing vitamin D usage associated with lower incidence of COVID-19. These results are for PCR+ cases only, they do not reflect potential benefits for reducing the severity of cases. A number of biases could affect the results, for example users of the app may not be representative of the general population, and people experiencing symptoms may be more likely to install and use the app.
This is the 13th of 111 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 49 sextillion). 27 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.00002.
This study includes probiotics, zinc, vitamin C, and vitamin D.
risk of case, 7.5% lower, RR 0.92, p < 0.001, odds ratio converted to relative risk, United Kingdom, all adjustment model.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Louca et al., 30 Nov 2020, retrospective, population-based cohort, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, mean age 49.6, 26 authors, dosage not specified.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app
Panayiotis Louca, Benjamin Murray, Kerstin Klaser, Mark S Graham, Mohsen Mazidi, Emily R Leeming, Ellen Thompson, Ruth Bowyer, David A Drew, Long H Nguyen, Jordi Merino, Maria Gomez, Olatz Mompeo, Ricardo Costeira, Carole H Sudre, Rachel Gibson, Claire J Steves, Jonathan Wolf, Paul W Franks, Sebastien Ourselin, Andrew T Chan, Sarah E Berry, Ana M Valdes, Philip C Calder, Tim D Spector, Dr Cristina Menni
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250
Objectives Dietary supplements may ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection, although scientific evidence to support such a role is lacking. We investigated whether users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app who regularly took dietary supplements were less likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design App-based community survey. Setting 445 850 subscribers of an app that was launched to enable self-reported information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection for use in the general population in the UK (n=372 720), the USA (n=45 757) and Sweden (n=27 373). Main exposure Self-reported regular dietary supplement usage (constant use during previous 3 months) in the first waves of the pandemic up to 31 July 2020. Main outcome measures SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by viral RNA reverse transcriptase PCR test or serology test before 31 July 2020. Results In 372 720 UK participants (175 652 supplement users and 197 068 non-users), those taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins or vitamin D had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 14% (95% CI (8% to 19%)), 12% (95% CI (8% to 16%)), 13% (95% CI (10% to 16%)) and 9% (95% CI (6% to 12%)), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders. No effect was observed for those taking vitamin C, zinc or garlic supplements. On stratification by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), the protective associations in individuals taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins and vitamin D were observed in females across all ages and BMI groups, but were not seen in men. The same overall pattern of association was observed in both the US and Swedish cohorts. Conclusion In women, we observed a modest but significant association between use of probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid, multivitamin or vitamin D supplements and lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found no clear benefits for men nor any effect of vitamin C, garlic or zinc. Randomised controlled trials are required to confirm these observational findings before any therapeutic recommendations can be made.
PL is funded by the CDRF, SO is funded by the Wellcome/EPSRC Centre for Medical Engineering (WT203148/Z/16/Z), Wellcome Flagship Programme (WT213038/ Z/18/Z), and PCC is supported by the National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre. We express our sincere thanks to all the participants of the COVID Symptom Study app including study volunteers enrolled in cohorts within the Coronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium. We thank the staff of Zoe Global Limited, the Department of Twin Research at King's College London, the Clinical & Translational Epidemiology Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital, Researchers and staff at Lund University in Sweden for their tireless work in contributing to the running of the study and data collection. Contributors Funding acquisition: JW, TDS. Conceptualisation: CM, TDS. Formal analysis: BM, PL, KK, CM. Data curation: BM, MG. Resources: MSG, RB, MM, ERL, OM, ET, RC, CJS, SO, SEB, DAD, LHN, JM, MG, PWF, ATC, RG, CHS. Wrote original draft: PL, AMV, PCC, CM. Revised the manuscript: all. CM and TDS are responsible for the overall content as guarantors. The guarantors accept full responsibility for the work and/or the conduct of the study, had access to the data and controlled the decision to publish. The manuscript's guarantors affirm that the manuscript is an honest, accurate and transparent account of the study being reported; that no important aspects of the study have been omitted and that any..
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