Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 8% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Louca et al.  Prophylaxis Does vitamin D reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 372,720 patients in the United Kingdom Fewer cases with vitamin D (p=0.0007) Louca et al., BMJ Nutrition, Preventio.., Nov 2020 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app

Louca et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250 (date from preprint)
Nov 2020  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Survey analysis of dietary supplements showing vitamin D usage associated with lower incidence of COVID-19. These results are for PCR+ cases only, they do not reflect potential benefits for reducing the severity of cases. A number of biases could affect the results, for example users of the app may not be representative of the general population, and people experiencing symptoms may be more likely to install and use the app.
This is the 13th of 120 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 248 sextillion).
29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000024.
Study covers probiotics, zinc, vitamin C, and vitamin D.
risk of case, 7.5% lower, RR 0.92, p < 0.001, odds ratio converted to relative risk, United Kingdom, all adjustment model.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Louca et al., 30 Nov 2020, retrospective, population-based cohort, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, mean age 49.6, 26 authors, dosage not specified.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app
Panayiotis Louca, Benjamin Murray, Kerstin Klaser, Mark S Graham, Mohsen Mazidi, Emily R Leeming, Ellen Thompson, Ruth Bowyer, David A Drew, Long H Nguyen, Jordi Merino, Maria Gomez, Olatz Mompeo, Ricardo Costeira, Carole H Sudre, Rachel Gibson, Claire J Steves, Jonathan Wolf, Paul W Franks, Sebastien Ourselin, Andrew T Chan, Sarah E Berry, Ana M Valdes, Philip C Calder, Tim D Spector, Dr Cristina Menni
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250
Objectives Dietary supplements may ameliorate SARS-CoV-2 infection, although scientific evidence to support such a role is lacking. We investigated whether users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app who regularly took dietary supplements were less likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design App-based community survey. Setting 445 850 subscribers of an app that was launched to enable self-reported information related to SARS-CoV-2 infection for use in the general population in the UK (n=372 720), the USA (n=45 757) and Sweden (n=27 373). Main exposure Self-reported regular dietary supplement usage (constant use during previous 3 months) in the first waves of the pandemic up to 31 July 2020. Main outcome measures SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by viral RNA reverse transcriptase PCR test or serology test before 31 July 2020. Results In 372 720 UK participants (175 652 supplement users and 197 068 non-users), those taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins or vitamin D had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 14% (95% CI (8% to 19%)), 12% (95% CI (8% to 16%)), 13% (95% CI (10% to 16%)) and 9% (95% CI (6% to 12%)), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounders. No effect was observed for those taking vitamin C, zinc or garlic supplements. On stratification by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), the protective associations in individuals taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivitamins and vitamin D were observed in females across all ages and BMI groups, but were not seen in men. The same overall pattern of association was observed in both the US and Swedish cohorts. Conclusion In women, we observed a modest but significant association between use of probiotics, omega-3 fatty acid, multivitamin or vitamin D supplements and lower risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. We found no clear benefits for men nor any effect of vitamin C, garlic or zinc. Randomised controlled trials are required to confirm these observational findings before any therapeutic recommendations can be made.
PL is funded by the CDRF, SO is funded by the Wellcome/EPSRC Centre for Medical Engineering (WT203148/Z/16/Z), Wellcome Flagship Programme (WT213038/ Z/18/Z), and PCC is supported by the National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre. We express our sincere thanks to all the participants of the COVID Symptom Study app including study volunteers enrolled in cohorts within the Coronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) consortium. We thank the staff of Zoe Global Limited, the Department of Twin Research at King's College London, the Clinical & Translational Epidemiology Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital, Researchers and staff at Lund University in Sweden for their tireless work in contributing to the running of the study and data collection. Contributors Funding acquisition: JW, TDS. Conceptualisation: CM, TDS. Formal analysis: BM, PL, KK, CM. Data curation: BM, MG. Resources: MSG, RB, MM, ERL, OM, ET, RC, CJS, SO, SEB, DAD, LHN, JM, MG, PWF, ATC, RG, CHS. Wrote original draft: PL, AMV, PCC, CM. Revised the manuscript: all. CM and TDS are responsible for the overall content as guarantors. The guarantors accept full responsibility for the work and/or the conduct of the study, had access to the data and controlled the decision to publish. The manuscript's guarantors affirm that the manuscript is an honest, accurate and transparent account of the study being reported; that no important aspects of the study have been omitted and that any..
Adams, Baker, Sobieraj, Myth Busters: dietary supplements and COVID-19, Ann Pharmacother, doi:10.1177/1060028020928052
Ahern, Maloy, Understanding immune-microbiota interactions in the intestine, Immunology, doi:10.1111/imm.13150
Anders, Schroeter, The impact of nutritional supplement intake on diet behavior and obesity outcomes, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0185258
Andrew, None
Berry, None
Bowyer, None
Butler-Laporte, Nakanishi, Mooser, Hastie, Pell et al., What is known about the safety of multivitamin-multimineral supplements for the generally healthy population? theoretical basis for harm, Am J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/85.1.318S
Caccialanza, Laviano, Lobascio, Early nutritional supplementation in non-critically ill patients hospitalized for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rationale and feasibility of a shared pragmatic protocol, PLoS Pathog, doi:10.1038/srep25835
Calder, Carr, Gombart, Optimal nutritional status for a Well-Functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections, Nutrients
Calder, Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid derived specialised pro-resolving mediators: concentrations in humans and the effects of age, sex, disease and increased omega-3 fatty acid intake, Biochimie, doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2020.08.015
Calder, Nutrition, immunity and COVID-19, BMJ Nutr Prev Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000085
Cheng, Wong, Yuen, Infection risk in health care workers, JAMA Netw Open
Clarke, Early innate immunity to bacterial infection in the lung is regulated systemically by the commensal microbiota via NOD-like receptor ligands, Infect Immun, doi:10.1128/IAI.02212-14
Costeira, None
Cramer, Hannan, Schloss, Med. Calder PC. n-3 PUFA and inflammation: from membrane to nucleus and from bench to bedside, Proc Nutr Soc, doi:10.1017/S0029665120007077
David, None
Drew, Nguyen, Steves, Rapid implementation of mobile technology for real-time epidemiology of COVID-19, Science, doi:10.1126/science.abc0473
Emily R Leeming, None
Franks, None
Frederiksen, Gomez, Salganicoff, Coronavirus: a look at gender differences in awareness and actions
Gibson, None
Giefing-Kröll, Berger, Lepperdinger, How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination, Aging Cell, doi:10.1111/acel.12326
Gomez, None
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12040988
Griffith, Morris, Tudball, Collider bias undermines our understanding of COVID-19 disease risk and severity, Nat Commun, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19478-2
Guzek, Skolmowska, Głąbska, Analysis of gender-dependent personal protective behaviors in a national sample: polish adolescents' COVID-19 experience (PLACE-19) study, Int J Environ Res Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph17165770
Hao, Lu, Dong, Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006895.pub2
Hemilä, Chalker, Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4
Henderson, Swan, Gregory, The National Diet & Nutrition Survey : adults aged 19 to 64 years. Vitamin and mineral intake and urinary analytes
Hexabiogen, (SARS-CoV-2) detection test
Jolliffe, Camargo, Sluyter, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20152728
Kantar, Consumer panel for food, beverages and household products
Khare, Godbole, Pawar, Calcitriol [1, 25[OH]2 D3] pre-and post-treatment suppresses inflammatory response to influenza A (H1N1) infection in human lung A549 epithelial cells, Eur J Nutr, doi:10.1007/s00394-012-0449-7
King, Glanville, Sanders, Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Br J Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114514000075
Klaser, None
Lentjes, The balance between food and dietary supplements in the general population, Proc Nutr Soc, doi:10.1017/S0029665118002525
Liu, Zhu, Zhang, Liu, Zhu, Probiotics' effects on the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Crit Care, doi:10.1186/cc11398
Long H Nguyen, None
Mark, Da Costa, Pagliari, Malnutrition: the silent pandemic, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m4593
Mark, None
Martineau, Forouhi, Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer?, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30268-0
Martineau, Jolliffe, Hooper, Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583
Mazidi, None
Mazidii, Leeming, Merino, Impact of COVID-19 on health behaviours and body weight: a prospective observational study in a cohort of 1.1 million UK and US individuals, Nature Portfolio
Menni, Gombart, Af, Pierre, Maggini, A review of micronutrients and the immune System-Working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12010236
Menni, Valdes, Freidin, Real-Time tracking of self-reported symptoms to predict potential COVID-19, Nat Med, doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0916-2
Merino, None
Mompeo, None
Murray, Exetera, dev1: High-volume key-value store and analytics, based on hdf5
Murray, None
Márquez, Chung, Marches, Sexual-dimorphism in human immune system aging, Nat Commun, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14396-9
Nutritools, Tool information: short form FFQ
Orcid, Louca, None
Ourselin, None
Padhani, Moazzam, Ashraf, Vitamin C supplementation for prevention and treatment of pneumonia, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Philip, Calder, None
Prietl, Treiber, Pieber, Vitamin D and immune function, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu5072502
Raposo, Fondell, Ström, Intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc and polyunsaturated fatty acids and upper respiratory tract infection-a prospective cohort study, Eur J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.261
Read, Obeid, Ahlenstiel, The role of zinc in antiviral immunity, Adv Nutr, doi:10.1093/advances/nmz013
Rogers, Mukherjee, Quantitative genetics of sexual dimorphism in human body size, Evolution, doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.1992.tb01997.x
Spector, None
Statswales, Wimd, None
Steves, None
Sudre, None
Surkova, Nikolayevskyy, Drobniewski, False-Positive COVID-19 results: hidden problems and costs, Lancet Respir Med, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30453-7
Thompson, None
Valdes, None
Van De Mortel, Bourke, Mcloughlin, Gender influences handwashing rates in the critical care unit, Am J Infect Control, doi:10.1067/mic.2001.119511
Vouloumanou, Makris, Karageorgopoulos, Probiotics for the prevention of respiratory tract infections: a systematic review, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.11.005
Wessels, Maywald, Rink, Zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu9121286
Winkler, De Vrese, Laue, Effect of a dietary supplement containing probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals on common cold infections and cellular immune parameters, Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, doi:10.5414/cpp43318
Wolf, None
Yamshchikov, Desai, Blumberg, Vitamin D for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, Endocr Pract, doi:10.4158/EP09101.ORR
Yeh, Shih, Liu, The influence of prebiotic or probiotic supplementation on antibody titers after influenza vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Drug Des Devel Ther, doi:10.2147/DDDT.S155110
Zhong, Luo, Li, Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey, Int J Biol Sci, doi:10.7150/ijbs.45221
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop