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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 65% per unit E-DII change Improvement Relative Risk Diet for COVID-19  Firoozi et al.  Prophylaxis Is a healthy diet beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective study in Iran (March - June 2020) Fewer cases with healthier diets (p<0.000001) Firoozi et al., Int. J. Clinical Pract.., Mar 2022 Favors healthy diet Favors control

The Association between Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index, Body Composition, and Anthropometric Indices in COVID-19-Infected Patients: A Case-Control Study in Shiraz, Iran

Firoozi et al., International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1155/2022/5452488
Mar 2022  
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Retrospective 133 COVID-19 patients and 322 controls, showing higher risk of COVID-19 for diets that have a higher inflammatory index (E-DII).
risk of case, 65.0% lower, OR 0.35, p < 0.001, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor higher quality diet, case control OR, multivariable, per unit E-DII change.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Firoozi et al., 29 Mar 2022, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, survey, 8 authors, study period March 2020 - June 2020.
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The Association between Energy-Adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index, Body Composition, and Anthropometric Indices in COVID-19-Infected Patients: A Case-Control Study in Shiraz, Iran
Donya Firoozi, Seyed Jalil Masoumi, Sara Ranjbar, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hebert, Morteza Zare, Hossein Poustchi, Faeze Sadat Hoseini
International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1155/2022/5452488
Background and Aims. Inflammation is strongly associated with the severity and mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 disease . Dietary factors have a crucial role in preventing chronic and systemic inflammation. is study aimed to evaluate the association between energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) scores and body composition parameters in COVID-19-infected patients compared to noninfected controls. Methods. A total of 133 COVID-19-infected patients and 322 noninfected controls were selected and enrolled from the Cohort Study of Employees of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. E-DII score was calculated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and body composition was measured using In-Body 770 equipment. Logistic regression models were utilized to estimate the odds ratio (OR). Results. In the control group, the mean E-DII score was significantly lower than the case group (−2.05 vs. −0.30, P ≤ 0.001), indicating that the diet of COVID-19-infected subjects was more proinflammatory than the controls. For every 1 unit increase in E-DII score, the odds of infection with COVID-19 was nearly triple (OR: 2.86, CI: 2.30, 3.35, P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, for each unit increase in body mass index (BMI), the odds of infection to COVID-19 increased by 7% (OR: 1.07, CI: 1.01, 1.13, P � 0.02). No significant difference was observed for other anthropometric parameters. Conclusion. e findings revealed that obese people and those consuming a more proinflammatory diet were more susceptible to coronavirus infection. erefore, maintaining ideal body weight and consuming a more anti-inflammatory diet can decrease the probability of COVID-19 infection.
Disclosure Dr. James R. Hebert owns a controlling interest in Connecting Health Innovations LLC (CHI), a company that has licensed the right to his invention of the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) from the University of South Carolina in order to develop computer and smartphone applications for patient counseling and dietary intervention in clinical settings. Dr. Nitin Shivappa is an employee of CHI. No financial support or fund was received for the study. Conflicts of Interest e authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. Authors' Contributions Firoozi and Masoumi designed and conceived the study hypothesis. Poustachi participated in the design. Firoozi was involved in data collection. Firoozi, Shivappa, Hebert, and Zare analyzed the data, and Firoozi, Masoumi, and Zare were involved in the interpretation of results. Firoozi, Hosseini, and Ranjbar wrote the main body of the manuscript. Masoumi, Pustachi, Shivapa, and Hebert edited and revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
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