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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ ICU admission, DII, Q1 v. Q4 99% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission, E-DII, Q1 v... 98% Diet for COVID-19  Barania Adabi et al.  Prophylaxis Is a healthy diet beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 500 patients in Iran (March - September 2021) Lower ICU admission with healthier diets (p<0.000001) c19early.org Barania Adabi et al., Frontiers in Nut.., Mar 2023 Favors healthy diet Favors control

The association between inflammatory and immune system biomarkers and the dietary inflammatory index in patients with COVID-19

Barania Adabi et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1075061
Mar 2023  
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Diet for COVID-19
21st treatment shown to reduce risk in June 2021
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 28 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 500 COVID-19 patients, showing dietary inflammatory index (DII) and energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) associated with COVID-19 severity.
risk of ICU admission, 98.7% lower, RR 0.01, p < 0.001, higher quality diet 0 of 125 (0.0%), lower quality diet 37 of 125 (29.6%), NNT 3.4, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), DII, quartile I vs. quartile IV.
risk of ICU admission, 98.1% lower, RR 0.02, p < 0.001, higher quality diet 0 of 125 (0.0%), lower quality diet 26 of 125 (20.8%), NNT 4.8, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), E-DII, quartile I vs. quartile IV.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Barania Adabi et al., 31 Mar 2023, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, survey, mean age 40.3, 5 authors, study period March 2021 - September 2021. Contact: daneghian.s@umsu.ac.ir.
This PaperDietAll
Margarida Castell, Roman Acevedo-Espinola, Torsten Bohn, Somayyeh Barania Adabi, Sevana Daneghian, Hamidreaza Khalkhali, Rahim Nejadrahim, Nitin Shivappa
R and Shivappa N ( ) The association between inflammatory and immune system biomarkers and the dietary inflammatory index in patients with COVID-.
Ethics statement The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran (Ethics Code IR.UMSU.REC.1399.367). The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Author contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work and approved it for publication. Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's note All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Supplementary material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2023. 1075061/full#supplementary-material
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{ 'DOI': '10.3389/fnut.2023.1075061', 'ISSN': ['2296-861X'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2023.1075061', 'abstract': '<jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Inflammation and cytokine storm have ' 'been reported to be the main cause of acute symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). ' 'Diet-induced inflammation may affect the condition of patients with COVID-19. Therefore, this ' 'study aimed to investigate the relationship between disease severity, inflammatory and immune ' 'system biomarkers, and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) in patients with ' 'COVID-19.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>This ' 'cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 adult patients with COVID-19. Patients were ' 'divided into mild, moderate, and severe conditions based on clinical and laboratory evidence. ' 'A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to determine DII and energy-adjusted ' 'DII (E-DII) scores. The serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and blood cell count were ' 'measured for all patients. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the association ' 'between DII and E-DII and CRP, blood cell counts, and hospitalization in patients with ' 'COVID-19.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Coronavirus ' 'disease (COVID-19) patients with higher DII had higher consumption of fat and carbohydrate ' 'and lower intakes of protein, anti-inflammatory nutrients, garlic, caffeine, tea, onion, and ' 'fiber (<jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.05). There was a positive association between ' 'DII and CRP (β = 1.024, <jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.001), hospitalization (β = ' '1.062, <jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.001), WBC count (β = 0.486, ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.009), neutrophil count (β = 0.565, ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.001), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (β = 0.538, ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.001) and a negative association between DII and the ' 'lymphocyte count (β = −0.569, <jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.001). There was a ' 'positive association between E-DII and hospitalization (β = 1.645, ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.001), WBC count (β = 0.417, ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; 0.02), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (β = 0.35, ' '<jats:italic>P</jats:italic> &amp;lt; ' '0.03).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>There is a ' 'positive correlation between DII and inflammation, immune hyperactivation, and length of ' 'hospital stay in patients with COVID-19. Further longitudinal studies are ' 'necessary.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'alternative-id': ['10.3389/fnut.2023.1075061'], 'author': [ {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Barania Adabi', 'given': 'Somayyeh', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Daneghian', 'given': 'Sevana', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Khalkhali', 'given': 'Hamidreaza', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Nejadrahim', 'given': 'Rahim', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Shivappa', 'given': 'Nitin', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'Frontiers in Nutrition', 'container-title-short': 'Front. 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{'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 31]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2023, 3, 31]]}, 'publisher': 'Frontiers Media SA', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1186/s12967-021-02795-5', 'article-title': 'The effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on clinical and ' 'biochemical parameters of critically ill patients with COVID-19: a ' 'randomized clinical trial', 'author': 'Doaei', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'J Transl Med.', 'key': 'B1', 'volume': '19', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.12998/wjcc.v9.i1.8', 'article-title': 'COVID-19: an overview and a clinical update', 'author': 'Krishnan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '8', 'journal-title': 'World J Clin Cases.', 'key': 'B2', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s12985-021-01588-y', 'article-title': 'Specific cytokines in the inflammatory cytokine storm of patients with ' 'COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome and ' 'extrapulmonary multiple-organ 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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