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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Moderate/severe case 72% Improvement Relative Risk Moderate/severe case (b) 59% Case 19% Case (b) 23% Diet for COVID-19  Kim et al.  Prophylaxis Is a healthy diet beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 568 patients in multiple countries (Jul - Sep 2020) Fewer moderate/severe cases with healthier diets (p=0.02) Kim et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention .., Jun 2021 Favors healthy diet Favors control

Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case–control study in six countries

Kim et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272
Jun 2021  
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Retrospective healthcare workers in six countries with exposure to COVID-19 patients, showing lower risk of moderate/severe COVID-19 with plant-based diets.
risk of moderate/severe case, 72.0% lower, OR 0.28, p = 0.02, higher quality diet 41, lower quality diet 527, adjusted per study, plant-based diets, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of moderate/severe case, 59.0% lower, OR 0.41, p = 0.05, higher quality diet 46, lower quality diet 522, adjusted per study, plant-based or pescatarian diets, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of case, 19.0% lower, OR 0.81, p = 0.24, higher quality diet 41, lower quality diet 527, adjusted per study, plant-based diets, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of case, 23.0% lower, OR 0.77, p = 0.14, higher quality diet 46, lower quality diet 522, adjusted per study, plant-based or pescatarian diets, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kim et al., 7 Jun 2021, retrospective, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, survey, 8 authors, study period 17 July, 2020 - 25 September, 2020.
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Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case–control study in six countries
Hyunju Kim, Casey M Rebholz, Sheila Hegde, Christine Lafiura, Madhunika Raghavan, John F Lloyd, Susan Cheng, Dr Sara B Seidelmann
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272
Background Several studies have hypothesised that dietary habits may play an important role in COVID-19 infection, severity of symptoms, and duration of illness. However, no previous studies have investigated the association between dietary patterns and COVID-19. Methods Healthcare workers (HCWs) from six countries (
Competing interests None declared. Patient consent for publication Not required. Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed by Leila Azadbakht, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and David Jenkins, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. Data availability statement Data are not publicly available. Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise. We compared moderate-to-severe severity (N=87) to very mild to mild severity (N=211). Severity was defined as: 1) Very mild: asymptomatic or nearly asymptomatic, 2) Mild: symptoms [fever <38°C (without treatment), with or without cough, no dyspnea, no gasping, no abnormal imaging findings], 3) Moderate: [fever, respiratory symptoms, and/or imaging findings of pneumonia], 4) Severe: meet any of the following: 1) respiratory distress, respiratory..
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