Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All diet studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchDietDiet (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Moderate/severe case 72% Improvement Relative Risk Moderate/severe case (b) 59% Case 19% Case (b) 23% Diet for COVID-19  Kim et al.  Prophylaxis Is a healthy diet beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 568 patients in multiple countries (Jul - Sep 2020) Fewer moderate/severe cases with healthier diets (p=0.02) c19early.org Kim et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention .., Jun 2021 Favors healthy diet Favors control

Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case–control study in six countries

Kim et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272
Jun 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Diet for COVID-19
21st treatment shown to reduce risk in June 2021
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 28 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective healthcare workers in six countries with exposure to COVID-19 patients, showing lower risk of moderate/severe COVID-19 with plant-based diets.
risk of moderate/severe case, 72.0% lower, OR 0.28, p = 0.02, higher quality diet 41, lower quality diet 527, adjusted per study, plant-based diets, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of moderate/severe case, 59.0% lower, OR 0.41, p = 0.05, higher quality diet 46, lower quality diet 522, adjusted per study, plant-based or pescatarian diets, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of case, 19.0% lower, OR 0.81, p = 0.24, higher quality diet 41, lower quality diet 527, adjusted per study, plant-based diets, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of case, 23.0% lower, OR 0.77, p = 0.14, higher quality diet 46, lower quality diet 522, adjusted per study, plant-based or pescatarian diets, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kim et al., 7 Jun 2021, retrospective, multiple countries, peer-reviewed, survey, 8 authors, study period 17 July, 2020 - 25 September, 2020.
This PaperDietAll
Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case–control study in six countries
Hyunju Kim, Casey M Rebholz, Sheila Hegde, Christine Lafiura, Madhunika Raghavan, John F Lloyd, Susan Cheng, Dr Sara B Seidelmann
BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272
Background Several studies have hypothesised that dietary habits may play an important role in COVID-19 infection, severity of symptoms, and duration of illness. However, no previous studies have investigated the association between dietary patterns and COVID-19. Methods Healthcare workers (HCWs) from six countries (
Competing interests None declared. Patient consent for publication Not required. Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed by Leila Azadbakht, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and David Jenkins, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine. Data availability statement Data are not publicly available. Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise. We compared moderate-to-severe severity (N=87) to very mild to mild severity (N=211). Severity was defined as: 1) Very mild: asymptomatic or nearly asymptomatic, 2) Mild: symptoms [fever <38°C (without treatment), with or without cough, no dyspnea, no gasping, no abnormal imaging findings], 3) Moderate: [fever, respiratory symptoms, and/or imaging findings of pneumonia], 4) Severe: meet any of the following: 1) respiratory distress, respiratory..
References
Ahdea, Jdes, Da Silva-Maia, Nutritional status, diet and viral respiratory infections: perspectives for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Br J Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114520003311
Bao, Bertoia, Lenart, Origin, methods, and evolution of the Three Nurses' Health Studies, Am J Public Health, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303338
Beck, Antioxidants and viral infections: host immune response and viral pathogenicity, J Am Coll Nutr, doi:10.1080/07315724.2001.10719172
Beck, Nelson, Shi, Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection, Faseb J, doi:10.1096/fj.00-0721fje
Beck, Shi, Morris, Rapid genomic evolution of a non-virulent coxsackievirus B3 in selenium-deficient mice results in selection of identical virulent isolates, Nat Med, doi:10.1038/nm0595-433
Calder, Carr, Gombart, Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12041181
Calder, Nutrition, immunity and COVID-19, BMJ Nutr Prev Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000085
Dushianthan, Cusack, Burgess, Immunonutrition for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012041.pub2
Fontanet, Autran, Lina, SARS-CoV-2 variants and ending the COVID-19 pandemic, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00370-6
Heidemann, Schulze, Franco, Dietary patterns and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a prospective cohort of women, Circulation, doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.771881
Hemilä, Chalker, Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4
Hemilä, Louhiala, Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005532.pub3
Hemilä, Vitamin E administration may decrease the incidence of pneumonia in elderly males, Clin Interv Aging, doi:10.2147/CIA.S114515
Iddir, Brito, Dingeo, Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through diet and nutrition: considerations during the COVID-19 crisis, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12061562
Jenkins, Kitts, Giovannucci, Selenium, antioxidants, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Am J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa245
Kim, Caulfield, Garcia-Larsen, Plant-based diets and incident CKD and kidney function, Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, doi:10.2215/CJN.12391018
Kim, Hegde, Lafiura, Access to personal protective equipment in exposed healthcare workers and COVID-19 illness, severity, symptoms and duration: a population-based case-control study in six countries, BMJ Glob Health, doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004611
Kim, Hegde, Lafiura, COVID-19 illness in relation to sleep and burnout, BMJ Nutr Prev Health
Kim, Rebholz, Garcia-Larsen, Operational differences in plant-based diet indices affect the ability to detect associations with incident hypertension in middle-aged US adults, J Nutr, doi:10.1093/jn/nxz275
Laerum, Wentzel-Larsen, Gulsvik, Relationship of fish and cod oil intake with adult asthma, Clin Exp Allergy, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2007.02821.x
Lemoine, Cm, Brigham, Woo, Omega-3 fatty acid intake and prevalent respiratory symptoms among U.S. adults with COPD, BMC Pulm Med, doi:10.1186/s12890-019-0852-4
Li, Werler, Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of upper respiratory tract infection in pregnant women, Public Health Nutr, doi:10.1017/S1368980009990590
Rodríguez, Ballart, Pastor, Validation of a short questionnaire on frequency of dietary intake: reproducibility and validity
Satija, Hu, Plant-based diets and cardiovascular health, Trends Cardiovasc Med, doi:10.1016/j.tcm.2018.02.004
Shah, Wood, Gribben, Risk of hospital admission with coronavirus disease 2019 in healthcare workers and their households: nationwide linkage cohort study, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m3582
Shearer, Walker, An overview of the biologic effects of omega-6 oxylipins in humans, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2018.06.005
Simonnet, Chetboun, Poissy, High prevalence of obesity in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, Obesity, doi:10.1002/oby.22831
Tavakol, Ghannadi, Tabesh, Relationship between physical activity, healthy lifestyle and COVID-19 disease severity; a cross-sectional study, Z Gesundh Wiss, doi:10.1007/s10389-020-01468-9
Tong, Appleby, Bradbury, Risks of ischaemic heart disease and stroke in meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians over on, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.l4897
Troeger, Blacker, Khalil, Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of lower respiratory infections in 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study 2016, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30310-4
Worldometer, Coronavirus graphs: worldwide cases and deaths
Yang, Zheng, Gou, Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int J Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017
Zabetakis, Lordan, Norton, COVID-19: the inflammation link and the role of nutrition in potential mitigation, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12051466
Zemb, Bergman, Camargo, Vitamin D deficiency and the COVID-19 pandemic, J Glob Antimicrob Resist, doi:10.1016/j.jgar.2020.05.006
Zu, Jiang, Xu, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a perspective from China, Radiology, doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200490
{ 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272', 'ISSN': ['2516-5542'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272', 'abstract': '<jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Several studies have hypothesised that ' 'dietary habits may play an important role in COVID-19 infection, severity of symptoms, and ' 'duration of illness. However, no previous studies have investigated the association between ' 'dietary patterns and ' 'COVID-19.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Healthcare ' 'workers (HCWs) from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, USA) with substantial ' 'exposure to COVID-19 patients completed a web-based survey from 17 July to 25 September 2020. ' 'Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, dietary information, and ' 'COVID-19 outcomes. We used multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate the ' 'association between self-reported diets and COVID-19 infection, severity, and ' 'duration.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>There were 568 ' 'COVID-19 cases and 2316 controls. Among the 568 cases, 138 individuals had moderate-to-severe ' 'COVID-19 severity whereas 430 individuals had very mild to mild COVID-19 severity. After ' 'adjusting for important confounders, participants who reported following ‘plant-based diets’ ' 'and ‘plant-based diets or pescatarian diets’ had 73% (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.81) and 59% ' '(OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.99) lower odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 severity, ' 'respectively, compared with participants who did not follow these diets. Compared with ' 'participants who reported following ‘plant-based diets’, those who reported following ‘low ' 'carbohydrate, high protein diets’ had greater odds of moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (OR 3.86, ' '95% CI 1.13 to 13.24). No association was observed between self-reported diets and COVID-19 ' 'infection or ' 'duration.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>In six ' 'countries, plant-based diets or pescatarian diets were associated with lower odds of ' 'moderate-to-severe COVID-19. These dietary patterns may be considered for protection against ' 'severe COVID-19.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'alternative-id': ['10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272'], 'author': [ {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Kim', 'given': 'Hyunju', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Rebholz', 'given': 'Casey M', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Hegde', 'given': 'Sheila', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'LaFiura', 'given': 'Christine', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Raghavan', 'given': 'Madhunika', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lloyd', 'given': 'John F', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Cheng', 'given': 'Susan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Seidelmann', 'given': 'Sara B', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': ['BMJ Nutrition, Prevention &amp; Health'], 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': ['bmj.com']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 8]], 'date-time': '2021-06-08T00:06:01Z', 'timestamp': 1623110761000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 7, 27]], 'date-time': '2021-07-27T21:07:01Z', 'timestamp': 1627420021000}, 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000062', 'award': ['K01 DK107782', 'R03 DK128386'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000002', 'award': ['U54CA260591'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'National Institutes of Health'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000050', 'award': ['R21 HL143089', 'R56 HL153178'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 3]], 'date-time': '2022-04-03T05:21:45Z', 'timestamp': 1648963305032}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 29, 'issn-type': [{'type': 'electronic', 'value': '2516-5542'}], 'issue': '1', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6]]}, 'journal-issue': { 'issue': '1', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 30]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/', 'content-version': 'unspecified', 'delay-in-days': 6, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 7]], 'date-time': '2021-06-07T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1623024000000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://syndication.highwire.org/content/doi/10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '239', 'original-title': [], 'page': '257-266', 'prefix': '10.1136', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 7]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6]]}, 'publisher': 'BMJ', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1016/s1473-3099(18)30310-4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.1'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00370-6', 'article-title': 'SARS-CoV-2 variants and ending the COVID-19 pandemic', 'author': 'Fontanet', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '952', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.2', 'volume': '397', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m3582', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.3'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12041181', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.4', 'unstructured': 'Calder P , Carr A , Gombart A , et al . Optimal nutritional status for a ' 'well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against ' 'viral infections. Nutrients 2020;12:1181. doi:10.3390/nu12041181'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.5'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/oby.22831', 'article-title': 'High prevalence of obesity in severe acute respiratory syndrome ' 'coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation', 'author': 'Simonnet', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1195', 'journal-title': 'Obesity', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.6', 'volume': '28', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004611', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.7'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000228', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.8', 'unstructured': 'Kim H , Hegde S , LaFiura C . COVID-19 illness in relation to sleep and ' 'burnout. BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021.'}, { 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.9', 'unstructured': 'Worldometer . Coronavirus graphs: worldwide cases and deaths. Available: ' 'https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/worldwide-graphs/ [Accessed 1 ' 'Mar 2021].'}, { 'article-title': '[Validation of a short questionnaire on frequency of dietary intake: ' 'reproducibility and validity]', 'author': 'Rodríguez', 'first-page': '242', 'journal-title': 'Nutr Hosp', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.10', 'volume': '23', 'year': '2008'}, { 'DOI': '10.1148/radiol.2020200490', 'article-title': 'Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a perspective from China', 'author': 'Zu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'E15', 'journal-title': 'Radiology', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.11', 'volume': '296', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/jn/nxz275', 'article-title': 'Operational differences in plant-based diet indices affect the ability ' 'to detect associations with incident hypertension in middle-aged US ' 'adults', 'author': 'Kim', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '842', 'journal-title': 'J Nutr', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.12', 'volume': '150', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.tcm.2018.02.004', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.13'}, { 'DOI': '10.1017/S0007114520003311', 'article-title': 'Nutritional status, diet and viral respiratory infections: perspectives ' 'for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2', 'author': 'Morais', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '851', 'journal-title': 'Br J Nutr', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.14', 'volume': '125', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12051466', 'article-title': 'COVID-19: the inflammation link and the role of nutrition in potential ' 'mitigation', 'author': 'Zabetakis', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.15', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000085', 'article-title': 'Nutrition, immunity and COVID-19', 'author': 'Calder', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '74', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Nutr Prev Health', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.16', 'volume': '3', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Relationship between physical activity, healthy lifestyle and COVID-19 ' 'disease severity; a cross-sectional study', 'author': 'Tavakol', 'first-page': '1-9', 'journal-title': 'Z Gesundh Wiss', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.17', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12061562', 'article-title': 'Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative ' 'stress through diet and nutrition: considerations during the COVID-19 ' 'crisis', 'author': 'Iddir', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.18', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.2215/CJN.12391018', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.19'}, { 'article-title': 'Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia', 'author': 'Hemilä', 'first-page': 'CD005532', 'journal-title': 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.20', 'year': '2013'}, { 'article-title': 'Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold', 'author': 'Hemilä', 'first-page': 'CD000980', 'journal-title': 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.21', 'year': '2013'}, { 'DOI': '10.2147/CIA.S114515', 'article-title': 'Vitamin E administration may decrease the incidence of pneumonia in ' 'elderly males', 'author': 'Hemilä', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1379', 'journal-title': 'Clin Interv Aging', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.22', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jgar.2020.05.006', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D deficiency and the COVID-19 pandemic', 'author': 'Zemb', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '133', 'journal-title': 'J Glob Antimicrob Resist', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.23', 'volume': '22', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1080/07315724.2001.10719172', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.24'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/nm0595-433', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.25'}, { 'DOI': '10.1096/fj.00-0721fje', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.26'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/ajcn/nqaa245', 'article-title': 'Selenium, antioxidants, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause ' 'mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized ' 'controlled trials', 'author': 'Jenkins', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1642', 'journal-title': 'Am J Clin Nutr', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.27', 'volume': '112', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.l4897', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.28'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.plefa.2018.06.005', 'article-title': 'An overview of the biologic effects of omega-6 oxylipins in humans', 'author': 'Shearer', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '26', 'journal-title': 'Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.29', 'volume': '137', 'year': '2018'}, { 'article-title': 'Immunonutrition for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in ' 'adults', 'author': 'Dushianthan', 'first-page': 'CD012041', 'journal-title': 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.30', 'volume': '1', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1017/S1368980009990590', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.31'}, { 'DOI': '10.1111/j.1365-2222.2007.02821.x', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.32'}, { 'DOI': '10.1186/s12890-019-0852-4', 'article-title': 'Omega-3 fatty acid intake and prevalent respiratory symptoms among U.S. ' 'adults with COPD', 'author': 'Lemoine S', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'BMC Pulm Med', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.33', 'volume': '19', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.771881', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.34'}, { 'DOI': '10.2105/AJPH.2016.303338', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'key': '2021072714055297000_4.1.257.35'}], 'reference-count': 35, 'references-count': 35, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://nutrition.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-container-title': ['BMJNPH'], 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['Nutrition and Dietetics', 'Medicine (miscellaneous)', 'Health (social science)'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': [ 'Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case–control ' 'study in six countries'], 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/crossmarkpolicy', 'volume': '4'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit