Association of fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake with COVIDseverity and symptoms in hospitalized patients: A cross-sectional study
Background and aims: Fruits and vegetables are rich in fiber and a good source of anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. We investigated the association between fruits, vegetables, and fiber intake and severity of COVID-and related symptoms in hospitalized patients. Methods: A total of COVID-hospitalized patients aged to years were recruited for this cross-sectional study in Kashan, Iran, between June and September of . Dietary intakes were assessed using an online validated -item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). COVIDseverity and symptoms were evaluated using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) COVID-Treatment Guidelines. Moreover, we examined COVIDsymptoms, inflammatory biomarkers, and additional factors.
Results: The mean age of participants was . ± . years, and % had severe COVID-. Patients with higher consumption of fruits (OR: . ; % CI: . -. , P-trend < . ), vegetables (OR: . ; % CI: . -. , P-trend < . ), and dietary fiber (OR: . ; % CI: . -. , P-trend < . ) had lower odds of having severe COVID-. In addition, they had shorter hospitalization and convalescence periods, lower serum C-reactive protein (CRP), and a reduced risk of developing COVID-symptoms such as sore throat, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, myalgia, cough, weakness, fever, and chills.
Ethics statement The Ethics Committee of Kashan University of Medical Sciences reviewed and authorized studies involving human participants. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study.
Author contributions AM and MT conceived, designed, and supervised the study. AE and CA contributed to data collection. KT, NZ, SM, and M-AG performed statistical analyses, data interpretation, and drafting of the manuscript. PMob, PMok, and HR contributed to the manuscript drafting and editing. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.
Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Publisher's note All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
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