Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All remdesivir studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchRemdesivirRemdesivir (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ All patients -9% Improvement Relative Risk <10 days from symptoms 24% >10 days from symptoms -48% Remdesivir  Wang et al.  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with remdesivir beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 236 patients in China (February - March 2020) No significant difference in mortality c19early.org Wang et al., Lancet, April 2020 Favors remdesivir Favors control

Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial

Apr 2020  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Small RCT with 237 hospitalized patients in China with severe COVID-19, not showing statistically significant benefits. 158 treatment patients and 79 control patients.
While too small for significance, the subgroup treated within 10 days showed reduced mortality RR 0.76, p = 0.58, and reduced median time to clinical improvement of 18 days vs. 23 days, hazard ratio 1.52 [0.95-2.43].
Gérard, Wu, Zhou show significantly increased risk of acute kidney injury with remdesivir.
all patients, 8.6% higher, RR 1.09, p = 1.00, treatment 22 of 158 (13.9%), control 10 of 78 (12.8%), day 28.
<10 days from symptoms, 24.3% lower, RR 0.76, p = 0.58, treatment 8 of 71 (11.3%), control 7 of 47 (14.9%), NNT 28, day 28.
>10 days from symptoms, 47.6% higher, RR 1.48, p = 0.76, treatment 12 of 84 (14.3%), control 3 of 31 (9.7%), day 28.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Wang et al., 29 Apr 2020, Randomized Controlled Trial, China, peer-reviewed, 46 authors, study period 6 February, 2020 - 12 March, 2020, average treatment delay 11.0 days.
This PaperRemdesivirAll
Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial
Yeming Wang, Dingyu Zhang, Prof Guanhua Du, Ronghui Du, MD Jianping Zhao, Yang Jin, Prof Shouzhi Fu, Prof Ling Gao, Prof Zhenshun Cheng, Prof Qiaofa Lu, Yi Hu, Guangwei Luo, Ke Wang, Yang Lu, Huadong Li, Shuzhen Wang, Shunan Ruan, Chengqing Yang, Chunlin Mei, MD, D Ding MD Yi Wang, Dan Ding, Feng Wu, Xin Tang, Xianzhi Ye, Yingchun Ye, Bing Liu, Jie Yang, Wen Yin, Aili Wang, Guohui Fan, Fei Zhou, Zhibo Liu, Xiaoying Gu, Jiuyang Xu, Lianhan Shang, Yi Zhang, Lianjun Cao, Tingting Guo, Yan Wan, Hong Qin, Yushen Jiang, Thomas Jaki, Frederick G Hayden, Peter W Horby, Prof Bin Cao, Prof Chen Wang
The Lancet, doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31022-9
Background No specific antiviral drug has been proven effective for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. Methods We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at ten hospitals in Hubei, China. Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg on days 2-10 in single daily infusions) or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days. Patients were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement up to day 28, defined as the time (in days) from randomisation to the point of a decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status (from 1=discharged to 6=death) or discharged alive from hospital, whichever came first. Primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04257656.
with a previous study of compassionate use of remdesivir, 21 our study population was less ill (eg, at the time of enrolment, 0•4% were on invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation vs 64% in the previous study) and was treated somewhat earlier in their disease course (median 10 days vs 12 days). Such differences might be expected to favour remdesivir, providing greater effects in our study population, but our results did not meet this expectation. However, our study did not reach its target enrolment because the stringent public health measures used in Wuhan led to marked reductions in new patient presentations in mid-March, and restrictions on hospital bed availability resulted in most patients being enrolled later in the course of disease. Consequently, we could not adequately assess whether earlier remdesivir treatment might have provided clinical benefit. However, among patients who
References
Agostini, Andres, Sims, Coronavirus susceptibility to the antiviral remdesivir (GS-5734) is mediated by the viral polymerase and the proofreading exoribonuclease, MBio
Arabi, Mandourah, Al-Hameed, Corticosteroid therapy for critically ill patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome, Am J Respir Crit Care Med
Bhatraju, Ghassemieh, Nichols, Covid-19 in critically ill patients in the Seattle region-case series, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2004500
Brown, Won, Graham, Broad spectrum antiviral remdesivir inhibits human endemic and zoonotic deltacoronaviruses with a highly divergent RNA dependent RNA polymerase, Antiviral Res
Cao, Wang, Wen, A trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001282
Chen, Huang, Cheng, Favipiravir versus arbidol for COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.17.20037432
Chen, Zhou, Dong, Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study, Lancet
De Wit, Feldmann, Cronin, Prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir (GS-5734) treatment in the rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection, Proc Natl Acad Sci
Grein, Ohmagari, Shin, Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007016
Holshue, Debolt, Lindquist, First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States, N Engl J Med
Jacobs, Rodger, Bell, Late Ebola virus relapse causing meningoencephalitis: a case report, Lancet
Lee, Chan, Hui, Effects of early corticosteroid treatment on plasma SARS-associated coronavirus RNA concentrations in adult patients, J Clin Virol
Liu, Cao, Xu, Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, Cell Discov
Lo, Jordan, Arvey, GS-5734 and its parent nucleoside analog inhibit filo-, pneumo-, and paramyxoviruses, Sci Rep
Mulangu, Dodd, Rt, A randomized, controlled trial of Ebola virus disease therapeutics, N Engl J Med
Pizzorno, Padey, Julien, Characterization and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 in nasal and bronchial human airway epithelia, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.03.31.017889
Sheahan, Sims, Graham, Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses, Sci Transl Med
Sheahan, Sims, Leist, Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV, Nat Commun
Shen, Wang, Zhao, Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4783
Tang, Zhu, Han, Hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized, controlled trial, doi:10.1101/2020.04.10.20060558
Wang, Cao, Zhang, Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro, Cell Res
Warren, Jordan, Lo, Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys, Nature
Whitehead, Stratton, Group sequential clinical trials with triangular continuation regions, Biometrics
Williamson, Feldmann, Schwarz, Clinical benefit of remdesivir in rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.15.043166
Wu, Mcgoogan, Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2648
Zhou, Yu, Du, Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet
{ 'DOI': '10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31022-9', 'ISSN': ['0140-6736'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9', 'alternative-id': ['S0140673620310229'], 'assertion': [ {'label': 'This article is maintained by', 'name': 'publisher', 'value': 'Elsevier'}, { 'label': 'Article Title', 'name': 'articletitle', 'value': 'Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, ' 'placebo-controlled, multicentre trial'}, {'label': 'Journal Title', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'value': 'The Lancet'}, { 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version', 'name': 'articlelink', 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9'}, { 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to the associated document', 'name': 'associatedlink', 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31023-0'}, {'label': 'Content Type', 'name': 'content_type', 'value': 'article'}, { 'label': 'Copyright', 'name': 'copyright', 'value': '© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.'}], 'author': [ {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'Yeming', 'sequence': 'first'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Zhang', 'given': 'Dingyu', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Du', 'given': 'Guanhua', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Du', 'given': 'Ronghui', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Jianping', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Jin', 'given': 'Yang', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Fu', 'given': 'Shouzhi', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Gao', 'given': 'Ling', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Cheng', 'given': 'Zhenshun', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lu', 'given': 'Qiaofa', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Hu', 'given': 'Yi', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Luo', 'given': 'Guangwei', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'Ke', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Lu', 'given': 'Yang', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Li', 'given': 'Huadong', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'Shuzhen', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Ruan', 'given': 'Shunan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Yang', 'given': 'Chengqing', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Mei', 'given': 'Chunlin', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'Yi', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Ding', 'given': 'Dan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wu', 'given': 'Feng', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Tang', 'given': 'Xin', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Ye', 'given': 'Xianzhi', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Ye', 'given': 'Yingchun', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Liu', 'given': 'Bing', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Yang', 'given': 'Jie', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Yin', 'given': 'Wen', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'Aili', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Fan', 'given': 'Guohui', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Zhou', 'given': 'Fei', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Liu', 'given': 'Zhibo', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Gu', 'given': 'Xiaoying', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Xu', 'given': 'Jiuyang', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Shang', 'given': 'Lianhan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Zhang', 'given': 'Yi', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Cao', 'given': 'Lianjun', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Guo', 'given': 'Tingting', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wan', 'given': 'Yan', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Qin', 'given': 'Hong', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Jiang', 'given': 'Yushen', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Jaki', 'given': 'Thomas', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Hayden', 'given': 'Frederick G', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Horby', 'given': 'Peter W', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Cao', 'given': 'Bin', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'Chen', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': 'The Lancet', 'container-title-short': 'The Lancet', 'content-domain': { 'crossmark-restriction': True, 'domain': [ 'clinicalkey.jp', 'clinicalkey.com', 'clinicalkey.es', 'clinicalkey.com.au', 'clinicalkey.fr', 'thelancet.com', 'em-consulte.com', 'elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com']}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2020, 4, 29]], 'date-time': '2020-04-29T23:31:26Z', 'timestamp': 1588203086000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 5, 28]], 'date-time': '2020-05-28T04:15:49Z', 'timestamp': 1590639349000}, 'funder': [ { 'award': ['2020HY320001'], 'name': 'Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Emergency Project of COVID-19'}, { 'award': ['2020ZX09201012'], 'name': 'Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and ' 'Development'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100012166', 'award': ['2018YFC1200102'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'name': 'National Key Research and Development Program of China'}, {'award': ['Z19110700660000'], 'name': 'Beijing Science and Technology Project'}, {'award': ['215091/Z/18/Z'], 'name': 'UK Department for International Development'}, { 'DOI': '10.13039/100000865', 'award': ['OPP1209135'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'name': 'Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 9]], 'date-time': '2024-04-09T12:37:57Z', 'timestamp': 1712666277737}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 2552, 'issue': '10236', 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5]]}, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '10236', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5]]}}, 'language': 'en', 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/', 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2020, 5, 1]], 'date-time': '2020-05-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1588291200000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0140673620310229?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S0140673620310229?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'member': '78', 'original-title': [], 'page': '1569-1578', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5]]}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2020, 5]]}, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'reference': [ { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.2648', 'article-title': 'Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease ' '2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases ' 'from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention', 'author': 'Wu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'JAMA', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib2', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7', 'article-title': 'Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel ' 'coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study', 'author': 'Chen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '507', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib3', 'volume': '395', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3', 'article-title': 'Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with ' 'COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study', 'author': 'Zhou', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1054', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib4', 'volume': '395', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2004500', 'article-title': 'Covid-19 in critically ill patients in the Seattle region–case series', 'author': 'Bhatraju', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib5', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0', 'article-title': 'Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged ' 'novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro', 'author': 'Wang', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2', 'journal-title': 'Cell Res', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib6', 'volume': '30', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0', 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is ' 'effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro', 'author': 'Liu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '16', 'journal-title': 'Cell Discov', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib7', 'volume': '6', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Hydroxychloroquine in patients with COVID-19: an open-label, ' 'randomized, controlled trial', 'author': 'Tang', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib8', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Favipiravir versus arbidol for COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial', 'author': 'Chen', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib9', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.4783', 'article-title': 'Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent ' 'plasma', 'author': 'Shen', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'JAMA', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib10', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001282', 'article-title': 'A trial of lopinavir–ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe ' 'Covid-19', 'author': 'Cao', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib11', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/srep43395', 'article-title': 'GS-5734 and its parent nucleoside analog inhibit filo-, pneumo-, and ' 'paramyxoviruses', 'author': 'Lo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Sci Rep', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib12', 'volume': '7', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1126/scitranslmed.aal3653', 'article-title': 'Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic ' 'coronaviruses', 'author': 'Sheahan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Sci Transl Med', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib13', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2017'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/nature17180', 'article-title': 'Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus ' 'in rhesus monkeys', 'author': 'Warren', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '381', 'journal-title': 'Nature', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib14', 'volume': '531', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.104541', 'article-title': 'Broad spectrum antiviral remdesivir inhibits human endemic and zoonotic ' 'deltacoronaviruses with a highly divergent RNA dependent RNA polymerase', 'author': 'Brown', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'Antiviral Res', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib15', 'volume': '169', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41467-019-13940-6', 'article-title': 'Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination ' 'lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV', 'author': 'Sheahan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '222', 'journal-title': 'Nat Commun', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib16', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1073/pnas.1922083117', 'article-title': 'Prophylactic and therapeutic remdesivir (GS-5734) treatment in the ' 'rhesus macaque model of MERS-CoV infection', 'author': 'de Wit', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '6771', 'journal-title': 'Proc Natl Acad Sci USA', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib17', 'volume': '117', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Characterization and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 in nasal and bronchial ' 'human airway epithelia', 'author': 'Pizzorno', 'journal-title': 'bioRxiv', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib18', 'year': '2020'}, { 'article-title': 'Clinical benefit of remdesivir in rhesus macaques infected with ' 'SARS-CoV-2', 'author': 'Williamson', 'journal-title': 'bioRxiv', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib19', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa1910993', 'article-title': 'A randomized, controlled trial of Ebola virus disease therapeutics', 'author': 'Mulangu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '2293', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib20', 'volume': '381', 'year': '2019'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2007016', 'article-title': 'Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19', 'author': 'Grein', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib21', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001191', 'article-title': 'First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States', 'author': 'Holshue', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '929', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib22', 'volume': '382', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.2307/2530822', 'article-title': 'Group sequential clinical trials with triangular continuation regions', 'author': 'Whitehead', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '227', 'journal-title': 'Biometrics', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib23', 'volume': '39', 'year': '1983'}, { 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib24', 'unstructured': "Gilead Sciences. Investigator's brochure of remdesivir, 5th edition. Feb " '21, 2020.'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30386-5', 'article-title': 'Late Ebola virus relapse causing meningoencephalitis: a case report', 'author': 'Jacobs', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '498', 'journal-title': 'Lancet', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib25', 'volume': '388', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1128/mBio.00221-18', 'article-title': 'Coronavirus susceptibility to the antiviral remdesivir (GS-5734) is ' 'mediated by the viral polymerase and the proofreading exoribonuclease', 'author': 'Agostini', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'e00221', 'journal-title': 'MBio', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib26', 'volume': '9', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jcv.2004.07.006', 'article-title': 'Effects of early corticosteroid treatment on plasma SARS-associated ' 'coronavirus RNA concentrations in adult patients', 'author': 'Lee', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '304', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Virol', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib27', 'volume': '31', 'year': '2004'}, { 'DOI': '10.1164/rccm.201706-1172OC', 'article-title': 'Corticosteroid therapy for critically ill patients with Middle East ' 'respiratory syndrome', 'author': 'Arabi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '757', 'journal-title': 'Am J Respir Crit Care Med', 'key': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31022-9_bib28', 'volume': '197', 'year': '2018'}], 'reference-count': 27, 'references-count': 27, 'relation': { 'has-review': [ { 'asserted-by': 'object', 'id': '10.3410/f.737842320.793574054', 'id-type': 'doi'}, { 'asserted-by': 'object', 'id': '10.3410/f.737842320.793575080', 'id-type': 'doi'}]}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140673620310229'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['General Medicine'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ' 'multicentre trial', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'volume': '395'}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit