Top
Main
 
All Outcomes
 
Feedback
Home
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchMetforminMetformin (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta PPIs Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

Loading...
More

Supplementary Data — Metformin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 93 studies

@CovidAnalysis, July 2024, Version 80V80
 
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ TOGETHER Reis (DB RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.28-1.94] death 7/215 9/203 impossible data, see notes Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control TOGETHER Reis (DB RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.55-1.61] hosp. 24/215 24/203 impossible data, see notes TOGETHER Reis (DB RCT) 39% 0.61 [0.26-1.41] hosp. 8/168 14/179 impossible data, see notes TOGETHER Reis (DB RCT) -14% 1.14 [0.73-1.81] hosp./ER 34/215 28/203 impossible data, see notes TOGETHER Reis (DB RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.45-1.71] hosp./ER 14/168 17/179 impossible data, see notes TOGETHER Reis (DB RCT) 31% 0.69 [0.28-1.68] progression 8/216 11/205 impossible data, see notes TOGETHER Reis (DB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.29-1.90] progression 7/171 10/181 impossible data, see notes TOGETHER Reis (DB RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.88-1.11] viral+ 215 (n) 203 (n) impossible data, see notes Hunt 67% 0.33 [0.25-0.43] death 73/3,956 1,539/22,552 COVID-OUT Bramante (DB RCT) 3% 0.97 [0.06-15.5] death 1/408 1/396 OT​1 COVID-OUT Bramante (DB RCT) -197% 2.97 [0.12-72.7] death 1/408 0/396 OT​1 COVID-OUT Bramante (DB RCT) 52% 0.48 [0.20-1.11] death/hosp. 8/652 18/655 OT​1 COVID-OUT Bramante (DB RCT) 40% 0.60 [0.37-0.94] progression 27/652 48/655 OT​1 COVID-OUT Bramante (DB RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.73-1.06] progression 154/652 179/653 OT​1 COVID-OUT Bramante (DB RCT) 37% 0.63 [0.48-0.83] viral+ 72/504 112/495 OT​1 COVID-OUT Bramante (DB RCT) 9% 0.91 [0.81-1.03] viral+ 251/504 270/495 OT​1 Abu-Jamous 65% 0.35 [0.11-0.84] death 4/23 94/168 Tamura 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.58] death 115 (n) 73 (n) Li 76% 0.24 [0.06-0.98] death 2/37 21/94 Shaseb (RCT) 74% 0.26 [0.06-1.06] death 85 (n) 104 (n) Shaseb (RCT) 79% 0.21 [0.04-0.99] ventilation 85 (n) 104 (n) Shaseb (RCT) 63% 0.37 [0.13-1.09] ICU 85 (n) 104 (n) Shaseb (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.82-1.11] hosp. time 85 (n) 104 (n) Ventura-.. (DB RCT) 44% 0.56 [0.33-0.95] oxygen time 10 (n) 10 (n) Ventura-.. (DB RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.72-1.12] hosp. time 10 (n) 10 (n) Ventura-.. (DB RCT) 41% 0.59 [0.37-0.95] viral time 10 (n) 10 (n) Mehrizi 44% 0.56 [0.53-0.60] death population-based cohort Sugimoto 40% 0.60 [0.53-0.66] death population-based cohort Sugimoto 41% 0.59 [0.51-0.68] misc. population-based cohort Luo 75% 0.25 [0.07-0.84] death 3/104 22/179 CORONADO Cariou 20% 0.80 [0.45-1.43] death 746 (n) 571 (n) Choi (PSM) -120% 2.20 [0.51-9.58] progression case control Wang 58% 0.42 [0.01-1.98] death 1/9 13/49 Chen 33% 0.67 [0.20-1.78] death 4/43 15/77 Kim 64% 0.36 [0.10-1.23] death 113 (n) 122 (n) Kim 52% 0.48 [0.19-1.24] progression 113 (n) 122 (n) Li 78% 0.22 [0.09-0.54] death 2/37 21/94 Li -27% 1.27 [0.12-13.6] ventilation 1/37 2/94 Mirani 45% 0.55 [0.27-1.11] death 25/69 13/21 Goodall 3% 0.97 [0.75-1.25] death 74/210 280/771 Gao -225% 3.25 [1.03-7.41] progression 16/56 4/54 Pérez-Bel.. (PSM) -10% 1.10 [0.84-1.40] death 79/249 79/249 Bramante 12% 0.88 [0.78-1.00] death 394/2,333 791/3,923 Bramante 21% 0.79 [0.65-0.95] death 1,129 (n) 2,173 (n) Bramante 4% 0.96 [0.82-1.14] death 1,204 (n) 1,750 (n) Sourij 37% 0.63 [0.33-1.10] death 14/77 44/161 Lalau (PSM) 22% 0.78 [0.55-1.10] death 671 (n) 419 (n) Lalau (PSM) 18% 0.82 [0.61-1.11] death/int. 671 (n) 419 (n) Lalau (PSM) 7% 0.93 [0.64-1.35] ventilation 671 (n) 419 (n) Huh -1% 1.01 [0.81-1.23] progression 104/272 774/2,533 Huh 4% 0.96 [0.82-1.12] cases case control Ramos-Rincón 1% 0.99 [0.77-1.29] death 206/420 179/370 Crouse 61% 0.39 [0.16-0.87] death 8/76 34/144 Lally 52% 0.48 [0.28-0.84] death 16/127 144/648 Oh -26% 1.26 [0.81-1.95] death 5,946 (n) 5,946 (n) Oh (PSM) 28% 0.72 [0.63-0.81] cases 390/5,946 541/5,946 CORONADO Wargny 28% 0.72 [0.53-0.95] death 247/1,553 330/1,241 CORONADO Wargny 15% 0.85 [0.74-0.97] no disch. 690/1,553 702/1,241 Bramante (PSM) 62% 0.38 [0.16-0.91] death 342 (n) 342 (n) Bramante 68% 0.32 [0.15-0.66] death 676 (n) 8,879 (n) Bramante (PSM) -9% 1.09 [0.62-1.91] ICU 342 (n) 342 (n) Bramante 32% 0.68 [0.45-1.02] ICU 676 (n) 8,879 (n) Bramante 22% 0.78 [0.58-1.04] hosp. 676 (n) 8,879 (n) COVIDENCE UK Holt -27% 1.27 [0.72-2.22] cases 12/429 434/14,798 Khunti 23% 0.77 [0.73-0.81] death population-based cohort Jiang (PSM) 46% 0.54 [0.13-2.26] death 3/74 10/74 Jiang (PSM) 80% 0.20 [0.05-0.77] progression 8/74 17/74 Ghany 66% 0.34 [0.19-0.59] death 392 (n) 747 (n) Ghany 29% 0.71 [0.52-0.86] hosp. 392 (n) 747 (n) Ghany 68% 0.32 [0.22-0.45] ARDS 392 (n) 747 (n) Alamgir 27% 0.73 [0.63-0.84] death 11,062 (n) 11,062 (n) Alamgir 34% 0.66 [0.49-0.90] death 5,369 (n) 5,369 (n) Alamgir 30% 0.70 [0.53-0.95] death 2,525 (n) 2,525 (n) Gálvez-Barrón -16% 1.16 [0.73-1.49] death 20 (n) 83 (n) Gálvez-Barrón -16% 1.16 [0.73-1.49] severe case 20 (n) 83 (n) Ravindra 30% 0.70 [0.28-1.56] death 5/53 57/313 Blanc 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.46] death 1/14 25/75 Blanc -44% 1.44 [1.00-2.07] cases 11/16 78/163 Boye 10% 0.90 [0.86-0.94] hosp. 2,067/4,250 3,196/5,281 Cheng (PSM) -65% 1.65 [0.71-3.86] death 678 (n) 535 (n) Wang 12% 0.88 [0.81-0.97] ICU 6,504 (n) 10,000 (n) Ando 39% 0.61 [0.38-0.99] hosp. Wander 15% 0.85 [0.80-0.90] death Wander 2% 0.98 [0.92-1.06] ICU Wander 3% 0.97 [0.94-1.01] hosp. Saygili (PSM) 42% 0.58 [0.37-0.92] death 120 (n) 120 (n) Ong 47% 0.53 [0.31-0.87] death 33/186 57/169 Ong 24% 0.76 [0.50-1.10] death 28/109 57/169 Ong 85% 0.15 [0.04-0.55] death 2/40 57/169 Ong 76% 0.24 [0.07-0.68] death 3/37 57/169 Bliden 60% 0.40 [0.12-1.37] death 3/34 9/41 Bliden 76% 0.24 [0.06-1.03] ventilation 2/34 10/41 Al-Salameh 55% 0.45 [0.17-0.94] death/ICU 9/47 22/50 Al-Salameh -68% 1.68 [1.12-2.05] death/ICU 34/43 22/50 Wallace (PSW) 72% 0.28 [0.21-0.37] death 103/1,203 1,536/6,970 Ojeda-Fern.. (PSM) 16% 0.84 [0.79-0.89] death 1,476/6,556 1,787/6,556 Ojeda-Fern.. (PSM) 22% 0.78 [0.72-0.84] death 968/6,556 1,261/6,556 Ojeda-Fern.. (PSM) 22% 0.78 [0.64-0.95] ICU 166/6,556 212/6,556 Ojeda-Fern.. (PSM) 3% 0.97 [0.94-1.00] hosp. 3,551/6,556 3,670/6,556 Ojeda-Fern.. (PSM) 8% 0.92 [0.84-1.00] death 793/3,297 876/3,297 Ojeda-Fern.. (PSM) 16% 0.84 [0.75-0.94] death 512/3,297 618/3,297 Ojeda-Fern.. (PSM) 39% 0.61 [0.44-0.82] ICU 64/3,297 102/3,297 Ojeda-Fern.. (PSM) -2% 1.02 [0.97-1.07] hosp. 1,822/3,297 1,792/3,297 Fu 72% 0.28 [0.09-0.84] no recov. 4/49 9/31 OT​1 Usman 60% 0.40 [0.12-1.37] death 3/34 9/41 Usman 76% 0.24 [0.06-1.03] ventilation 2/34 10/41 Usman 34% 0.66 [0.39-1.13] hosp. time 34 (n) 41 (n) Wong 51% 0.49 [0.43-0.57] death Wong 41% 0.59 [0.52-0.66] ventilation Wong 40% 0.60 [0.57-0.63] hosp. Wong (PSW) 59% 0.41 [0.22-0.80] death 786 (n) 428 (n) Wong (PSW) 61% 0.39 [0.21-0.75] no recov. 786 (n) 428 (n) Wong (PSW) 64% 0.36 [0.18-0.76] improv. 786 (n) 428 (n) Wong (PSW) 56% 0.44 [0.24-0.81] no disch. 786 (n) 428 (n) MacFadden 1% 0.99 [0.96-1.01] cases n/a n/a Ma (PSW) 74% 0.26 [0.07-0.89] death 3/361 40/995 Ma (PSM) 25% 0.75 [0.36-1.56] ventilation 12/360 16/360 Yeh 44% 0.56 [0.45-0.71] progression n/a n/a Yeh 37% 0.63 [0.53-0.75] hosp. n/a n/a Cousins (PSM) 50% 0.50 [0.29-0.85] ventilation 2,463 (n) 2,463 (n) Cousins (PSM) 51% 0.49 [0.35-0.68] ICU 2,463 (n) 2,463 (n) Shestakova 22% 0.78 [0.67-0.91] death population-based cohort Loucera 30% 0.70 [0.61-0.80] death 1,896 (n) 14,072 (n) Chan 59% 0.41 [0.12-1.44] death 400 (n) 2,736 (n) Chan 54% 0.46 [0.18-1.14] severe case 400 (n) 2,736 (n) Chan 42% 0.58 [0.17-1.91] progression 51/400 798/2,736 Chan 37% 0.63 [0.23-1.71] progression 400 (n) 2,736 (n) Chan 41% 0.59 [0.31-1.13] progression 196 (n) 86 (n) Chan 34% 0.66 [0.39-1.09] progression 196 (n) 86 (n) Zaccardi 34% 0.66 [0.60-0.72] death population-based cohort Zaccardi 31% 0.69 [0.65-0.73] hosp. population-based cohort Yip (PSM) 7% 0.93 [0.72-1.22] death/hosp. 8,604 (n) 3,727 (n) Yip (PSM) 15% 0.85 [0.68-1.07] progression 8,604 (n) 3,727 (n) Yip (PSM) 15% 0.85 [0.68-1.05] progression 8,604 (n) 3,727 (n) Ouchi 10% 0.90 [0.77-1.05] death 6,168 (n) 9,875 (n) Ouchi 8% 0.92 [0.82-1.02] death/hosp. 6,168 (n) 9,875 (n) Morrison (PSM) 41% 0.59 [0.41-0.84] death 2,684 (n) 2,684 (n) Morrison (PSM) -16% 1.16 [0.76-1.76] ventilation 2,684 (n) 2,684 (n) Morrison (PSM) 3% 0.97 [0.72-1.31] ICU 2,684 (n) 2,684 (n) Morrison (PSM) -4% 1.04 [0.84-1.28] hosp. 2,684 (n) 2,684 (n) Mannucci 38% 0.62 [0.41-0.93] death n/a n/a Mannucci 15% 0.85 [0.64-1.12] hosp. n/a n/a Milosavljevic 33% 0.67 [0.47-0.95] severe case 377 (n) 356 (n) Miao (PSM) 1% 0.99 [0.85-1.15] death 233/796 236/796 Miao (PSM) 5% 0.95 [0.88-1.03] hosp. time 796 (n) 796 (n) Servais 49% 0.51 [0.34-0.78] death n/a n/a Pinchera 15% 0.85 [0.71-0.96] severe case 5/19 14/24 OT​1 Sandhu 3% 0.97 [0.95-0.99] hosp. population-based cohort Yen (PSM) 25% 0.75 [0.63-0.89] death 232/20,894 295/20,894 Yen (PSM) 25% 0.75 [0.60-0.95] ventilation 133/20,894 168/20,894 Yen (PSM) 19% 0.81 [0.70-0.94] ICU 332/20,894 390/20,894 Yen (PSM) 15% 0.85 [0.81-0.89] hosp. 2,820/20,894 3,139/20,894 Yen (PSM) -2% 1.02 [0.94-1.10] cases 1,467/20,894 1,364/20,894 Araldi 60% 0.40 [0.32-0.50] death 107/2,598 263/2,598 Akinosoglou 37% 0.63 [0.35-1.13] death 147 (n) 207 (n) Akinosoglou -39% 1.39 [0.79-2.45] ICU 147 (n) 207 (n) Akinosoglou -3% 1.03 [0.62-1.69] ARDS 147 (n) 207 (n) Alieva 15% 0.85 [0.49-1.48] hosp. 375 (n) 388 (n) Obiri-Yeboah -1% 1.01 [0.54-1.87] death 148 (n) 381 (n) Obiri-Yeboah -4% 1.04 [0.67-1.59] ventilation 148 (n) 381 (n) Obiri-Yeboah 8% 0.92 [0.60-1.43] ICU 148 (n) 381 (n) Piarulli 53% 0.47 [0.20-1.08] death/ICU 1,444 (n) 1,009 (n) Piarulli 15% 0.85 [0.39-1.83] death/ICU 209 (n) 180 (n) Piarulli 45% 0.55 [0.40-0.75] hosp. 1,444 (n) 1,009 (n) Greco 22% 0.78 [0.57-1.05] hosp. OT​1 Greco 26% 0.74 [0.60-0.92] hosp. OT​1 Greco 17% 0.83 [0.46-1.50] hosp. OT​1 Guo 62% 0.38 [0.15-0.92] death/int. 241 (n) 330 (n) Guo 81% 0.19 [0.06-0.56] progression 241 (n) 330 (n) Guo 80% 0.20 [0.04-1.03] progression 241 (n) 330 (n) Zihono 49% 0.51 [0.28-0.93] death 11/56 31/81 Farah -3% 1.03 [0.83-1.28] cases 267/821 69/218 Bidari 10% 0.90 [0.65-1.23] severe case 29/80 132/326 Miguel 37% 0.63 [0.29-1.36] ICU 64 (n) 68 (n) Miguel 43% 0.57 [0.19-1.71] ICU 3/15 14/40 Miguel 31% 0.69 [0.23-2.04] ICU 6/49 5/28 Mamari 50% 0.50 [0.29-0.86] death 11/34 22/34 OT​1 Al-kuraishy 78% 0.22 [0.06-0.77] death 3/60 9/40 Al-kuraishy 41% 0.59 [0.45-0.78] no recov. 57 (n) 31 (n) Al-kuraishy 84% 0.16 [0.06-0.40] no recov. 57 (n) 31 (n) Jang 60% 0.40 [0.18-0.85] death 461 (n) 95 (n) Jang 72% 0.28 [0.11-0.72] ventilation 461 (n) 95 (n) Jang 39% 0.61 [0.33-1.13] ICU 461 (n) 95 (n) Jang 30% 0.70 [0.40-1.25] oxygen 461 (n) 95 (n) Jang -27% 1.27 [0.70-2.29] hosp. 461 (n) 95 (n) Lewandowski 23% 0.77 [0.53-1.08] death 14/101 83/329 Silverii 29% 0.71 [0.27-1.90] death 220 (n) 304 (n) Silverii 20% 0.80 [0.49-1.28] death 220 (n) 304 (n) Dimnjaković 23% 0.77 [0.64-0.92] hosp. 2,843 (n) 4,475 (n) Dimnjaković 12% 0.88 [0.77-0.99] cases 2,843 (n) 4,475 (n) Xu (PSM) 52% 0.48 [0.23-0.83] death 405 (n) 405 (n) Xu 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.70] death 466 (n) 4,456 (n) Xu 54% 0.46 [0.26-0.81] ventilation 466 (n) 4,456 (n) Xu 72% 0.28 [0.08-0.96] ARDS 466 (n) 4,456 (n) Olawore 19% 0.81 [0.55-1.20] PASC 5,596 (n) 1,451 (n) Olawore 14% 0.86 [0.56-1.32] PASC 5,596 (n) 1,451 (n) Chen 81% 0.19 [0.05-0.80] ICU 2/121 25/292 Chen 39% 0.61 [0.42-0.89] progression 25/121 99/292 Chen 17% 0.83 [0.75-0.93] hosp. time 121 (n) 292 (n) Hussein 64% 0.36 [0.12-0.87] death 30/158 60/110 OT​1 Metformin COVID-19 outcomes c19early.org July 2024 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors metformin Favors control
Figure S1. All outcomes.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit