Top
Main
 
All Outcomes
 
Feedback
Home
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin CVitamin C (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

Loading...
More

Supplementary Data — Vitamin C for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 73 studies (71 treatment studies and 2 sufficiency studies)

@CovidAnalysis, June 2024, Version 78V78
 
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Su -135% 2.35 [0.67-8.27] progression n/a n/a Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Su -34% 1.34 [1.02-1.73] no improv. n/a n/a COVIDAtoZ Thomas (RCT) -204% 3.04 [0.13-72.9] death 1/48 0/50 COVIDAtoZ Thomas (RCT) 31% 0.69 [0.12-3.98] hosp. 2/48 3/50 COVIDAtoZ Thomas (RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.63-1.07] recov. time 48 (n) 50 (n) Zhao (PSM) 72% 0.28 [0.08-0.93] progression 4/55 12/55 Zhao (PSM) -8% 1.08 [0.64-1.80] viral time 55 (n) 55 (n) Ried (RCT) 31% 0.69 [0.54-0.89] no recov. 69/162 46/75 Usanma Koban 33% 0.67 [0.07-5.38] viral+ 31 (n) 95 (n) Madamombe 53% 0.47 [0.31-0.71] death 672 (all patients) Rahman 40% 0.60 [0.47-0.76] hosp. 128/476 56/124 Krishnan 31% 0.69 [0.47-0.92] death 40/79 52/73 Zhang (RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.20-1.50] death 6/27 11/29 ICU patients Zhang (RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.10-0.90] death 5/27 11/29 ICU patients Zhang (RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.20-1.80] death 6/27 10/29 ICU patients Zhang (RCT) 70% 0.30 [0.21-1.10] death 5/27 10/29 ICU patients Yüksel (ICU) 19% 0.81 [0.66-0.99] death 31/42 40/44 ICU patients Patel 29% 0.71 [0.43-1.14] death 22/96 26/80 Patel 16% 0.84 [0.52-1.36] death 15/30 16/27 Kumari (RCT) 36% 0.64 [0.26-1.55] death 7/75 11/75 Kumari (RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.40-1.59] ventilation 12/75 15/75 Kumari (RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.64-0.86] recov. time 75 (n) 75 (n) Kumari (RCT) 24% 0.76 [0.66-0.87] hosp. time 75 (n) 75 (n) Darban (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.14-3.17] progression 2/10 3/10 ICU patients CT​2 Darban (RCT) 6% 0.94 [0.84-1.06] ICU 10 (n) 10 (n) ICU patients CT​2 Jang 51% 0.49 [0.23-1.01] no recov. 5/12 6/7 ECMO patients JamaliMo.. (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.22-4.56] death 3/30 3/30 JamaliMo.. (RCT) -25% 1.25 [0.37-4.21] ventilation 5/30 4/30 JamaliMo.. (RCT) -31% 1.31 [1.03-1.66] hosp. time 30 (n) 30 (n) Gao 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.72] death 1/46 5/30 Hamidi-A.. (RCT) 44% 0.56 [0.20-1.51] death 5/40 9/40 CT​2 Hamidi-A.. (RCT) 38% 0.62 [0.45-0.86] hosp. time 40 (n) 40 (n) CT​2 Al Sulaiman (PSM) 15% 0.85 [0.61-1.12] death 46/142 59/142 Mulhem -32% 1.32 [1.07-1.62] death 157/794 359/2,425 Gadhiya -1% 1.01 [0.48-1.91] death 19/55 36/226 Hakamifard (RCT) 46% 0.54 [0.14-2.08] ICU 3/38 5/34 CT​2 Hakamifard (RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.91-1.07] hosp. time 38 (n) 34 (n) CT​2 Elhadi (ICU) -12% 1.12 [0.96-1.31] death 175/277 106/188 ICU patients Suna 21% 0.79 [0.44-1.41] death 17/153 24/170 Suna -2% 1.02 [0.46-2.24] ICU 11/153 12/170 Pourhoseingholi 13% 0.87 [0.63-1.19] death 54/199 285/2,269 Li (ICU) -11% 1.11 [0.79-1.54] death 7/8 19/24 ICU patients Vishnuram 54% 0.46 [0.24-0.86] death 164/8,634 10/241 Özgünay (ICU) 9% 0.91 [0.63-1.30] death 17/32 75/128 ICU patients Özgünay (ICU) -1% 1.01 [0.79-1.29] ventilation 23/32 91/128 ICU patients Tan 25% 0.75 [0.10-2.98] death/int. 1/46 14/115 CT​2 Tan 73% 0.27 [0.09-0.61] ARDS 7/46 41/115 CT​2 Zheng (PSM) -157% 2.57 [0.39-16.8] death 12/70 7/327 Zheng -169% 2.69 [0.91-7.89] death 12/70 7/327 Zheng (PSM) -35% 1.35 [0.88-2.08] no improv. 18/70 16/327 Zheng -32% 1.32 [0.93-1.82] no improv. 18/70 16/327 Simsek 44% 0.56 [0.23-1.35] death 6/58 15/81 Simsek 10% 0.90 [0.55-1.46] ICU 18/58 28/81 Tehrani (RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.25] death 0/18 4/26 Tehrani (RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.60-1.13] hosp. time 18 (n) 26 (n) Majidi (DB RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.76-0.98] death 26/31 67/69 ICU patients Baguma -48% 1.48 [0.41-4.70] death 385 (n) 96 (n) Tu 83% 0.17 [0.08-0.35] death 8/116 26/64 Yang (RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.55-0.81] recov. time 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​2 Yang (RCT) 45% 0.55 [0.44-0.71] recov. time 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​2 Yang (RCT) 24% 0.76 [0.63-0.93] recov. time 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​2 Yang (RCT) 28% 0.72 [0.58-0.89] recov. time 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​2 Yang (RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.60-0.89] recov. time 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​2 Yang (RCT) 23% 0.77 [0.66-0.89] recov. time 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​2 Yang (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.68-1.06] recov. time 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​2 Yang (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.75-0.97] recov. time 10 (n) 10 (n) CT​2 Gavrielatou (ICU) 58% 0.42 [0.12-1.48] death 2/10 49/103 ICU patients Salehi (ICU) 10% 0.90 [0.65-1.25] death 22/40 52/85 ICU patients Coppock (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.16-7.84] progression 4/44 2/22 Coppock (RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.16-1.33] no improv. 6/44 6/22 Coppock (RCT) 22% 0.78 [0.59-1.02] no disch. 31/44 20/22 Hess (PSW) 20% 0.80 [0.40-1.60] death 10/25 37/75 Hess (PSW) 40% 0.60 [0.28-1.00] ventilation 18/25 54/75 Hess (PSW) 50% 0.50 [0.20-0.90] ventilation 18/25 54/75 Hess (PSW) 27% 0.73 [0.41-1.04] ICU 22/25 63/75 Hess (PSW) 30% 0.70 [0.40-1.20] ICU 22/25 63/75 Zangeneh (ICU) 4% 0.96 [0.64-1.45] death n/a n/a ICU patients LINCOLN Izzo 41% 0.59 [0.50-0.69] recovery 869 (n) 521 (n) LONG COVID OT​1 CT​2 LINCOLN Izzo 68% 0.33 [0.19-0.57] recovery 869 (n) 521 (n) LONG COVID OT​1 CT​2 Fogleman (DB RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.65-1.40] recovery 32 (n) 34 (n) Kumar (DB RCT) 23% 0.77 [0.40-1.47] death 10/30 13/30 ICU patients Kumar (DB RCT) 21% 0.79 [0.43-1.44] ventilation 11/30 14/30 ICU patients Özgülteki̇n (ICU) -5% 1.05 [0.81-1.36] death 18/21 18/22 ICU patients Doocy 63% 0.37 [0.08-1.82] death 2/64 22/80 Labbani-.. (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.20-2.17] death 4/37 6/37 Labbani-.. (DB RCT) -13% 1.13 [0.81-1.58] hosp. time 37 (n) 37 (n) Labbani-.. (DB RCT) 16% 0.84 [0.68-1.05] progression 37 (n) 37 (n) Labbani-.. (DB RCT) -9% 1.09 [0.86-1.39] progression 37 (n) 37 (n) Labbani-.. (DB RCT) -6% 1.06 [0.93-1.20] progression 37 (n) 37 (n) Labbani-.. (DB RCT) 60% 0.40 [0.14-1.16] progression 4/37 10/37 Coskun (ICU) 25% 0.75 [0.48-1.15] death 17/38 24/40 ICU patients Coskun (ICU) 2% 0.98 [0.76-1.28] ventilation 28/38 30/40 ICU patients Coskun (ICU) 28% 0.72 [0.57-0.90] sofa 38 (n) 40 (n) ICU patients Kyagambiddwa 50% 0.50 [0.24-1.04] death 246 (all patients) Rana (DB RCT) 55% 0.45 [0.16-1.27] death 5/139 11/139 ICU patients Rana (DB RCT) 44% 0.56 [0.19-1.62] ventilation 5/139 9/139 ICU patients Rana (DB RCT) 37% 0.63 [0.00-1358] hosp. time 139 (n) 139 (n) ICU patients Mousaviasl (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.32-1.98] death 8/201 10/200 Mousaviasl (DB RCT) -99% 1.99 [0.18-21.8] death 2/201 1/200 Mousaviasl (DB RCT) -200% 3.00 [0.12-73.1] ventilation 1/201 0/200 Mousaviasl (DB RCT) -33% 1.33 [0.47-3.75] ICU 8/201 6/200 Seely (DB RCT) 48% 0.52 [0.10-2.71] progression 2/42 4/44 CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.61-1.22] no recov. 34 (n) 24 (n) CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) 29% 0.71 [0.28-1.75] no recov. 7/34 7/24 CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) 29% 0.71 [0.31-1.65] no recov. 32 (n) 31 (n) CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.37-1.97] no recov. 33 (n) 30 (n) CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) 50% 0.50 [0.19-1.34] no recov. 32 (n) 33 (n) CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) -12% 1.12 [0.82-1.54] no recov. 30 (n) 25 (n) CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) -4% 1.04 [0.77-1.40] recov. time 34 (n) 24 (n) CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.19-4.02] PASC 3/33 3/29 CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) 36% 0.64 [0.16-2.65] PASC 3/35 4/30 CT​2 Seely (DB RCT) 1% 0.99 [0.34-2.93] PASC 6/35 5/29 CT​2 REMAP-CAP Adhikari (RCT) -19% 1.19 [0.98-1.46] death 1,303 (n) 903 (n) REMAP-CAP Adhikari (RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.91-1.47] death 953 (n) 434 (n) REMAP-CAP Adhikari (RCT) -27% 1.27 [0.92-1.85] death 350 (n) 469 (n) REMAP-CAP Adhikari (RCT) -35% 1.35 [1.01-1.79] ventilation 1,032 (n) 528 (n) REMAP-CAP Adhikari (RCT) -69% 1.69 [1.20-2.63] ventilation 454 (n) 563 (n) LOVIT-COVID Adhikari (DB RCT) 28% 0.72 [0.45-1.17] death 190 (n) 194 (n) LOVIT-COVID Adhikari (DB RCT) 28% 0.72 [0.36-1.33] death 84 (n) 97 (n) LOVIT-COVID Adhikari (DB RCT) 28% 0.72 [0.35-1.45] death 106 (n) 97 (n) SAFE EVICT CORONA-ALI Fowler (DB RCT) 19% 0.81 [0.30-2.19] death 5/22 7/25 ICU patients SAFE EVICT CORONA-ALI Fowler (DB RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.99-1.05] misc. 21 (n) 23 (n) ICU patients Behera 18% 0.82 [0.45-1.57] cases case control Behera 29% 0.71 [0.40-1.26] cases case control Louca 0% 1.00 [0.97-1.04] cases population-based cohort Mahto -26% 1.26 [0.63-2.28] IgG+ 34/140 59/549 Bejan 34% 0.66 [0.29-1.53] death 569 (n) 8,637 (n) Bejan 25% 0.75 [0.35-1.62] ventilation 572 (n) 8,657 (n) Bejan 15% 0.85 [0.43-1.69] ICU 577 (n) 8,690 (n) Bejan 0% 1.00 [0.67-1.49] hosp. 626 (n) 9,122 (n) COVIDENCE UK Holt -3% 1.03 [0.77-1.39] cases 49/1,580 397/13,647 Abdulateef 19% 0.81 [0.37-1.78] hosp. 8/132 22/295 Aldwihi 36% 0.64 [0.45-0.86] hosp. 142/505 95/233 Mohseni -44% 1.44 [1.22-1.71] cases 34/43 307/560 Nimer 25% 0.75 [0.54-1.04] hosp. 52/651 167/1,497 Nimer 17% 0.83 [0.62-1.09] severe case 66/651 194/1,497 Shehab 4% 0.96 [0.46-1.99] severe case 14/139 12/114 Loucera 28% 0.72 [0.58-0.88] death 840 (n) 15,128 (n) Guldemir 31% 0.69 [0.48-0.99] hosp. 33/173 84/304 Sharif 46% 0.54 [0.01-0.92] severe case n/a n/a Sharif 97% 0.03 [0.01-0.22] severe case n/a n/a Asoudeh 69% 0.31 [0.14-0.65] severe case 250 (all patients) Vaisi 38% 0.62 [0.31-1.23] hosp. 2,818 (n) 1,137 (n) Vaisi 10% 0.90 [0.69-1.29] symp. case 2,818 (n) 1,137 (n) Akbar 14% 0.86 [0.65-1.14] cases 665 (n) 9,335 (n) Guan 31% 0.69 [0.50-0.86] symp. case 28/46 2,017/2,454 Guan 18% 0.82 [0.68-0.94] symp. case 55/79 2,017/2,454 Guan 7% 0.93 [0.84-1.01] symp. case 129/167 2,017/2,454 Vitamin C COVID-19 outcomes c19early.org June 2024 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin C Favors control
Figure S1. All outcomes.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit