Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin C studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin CVitamin C (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

The Effect of High-dose Vitamin C Treatment for Acute Respiratory Failure due to Coronavirus Disease Pneumonia on Mortality and Length of Intensive Care Stay: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Coskun et al., SiSli Etfal Hastanesi Tip Bulteni / The Medical Bulletin of Sisli Hospital, doi:10.14744/SEMB.2022.66742, NCT04710329
Mar 2023  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Mortality 25% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 2% ICU time 0% no CI SOFA score, @96 hours 28% Vitamin C for COVID-19  Coskun et al.  ICU PATIENTS Is very late treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 78 patients in Turkey (March - June 2020) Improved recovery with vitamin C (p=0.005) Coskun et al., SiSli Etfal Hastanesi T.., Mar 2023 Favorsvitamin C Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now with p = 0.000000038 from 71 studies, recognized in 12 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments.
Retrospective 78 ICU patients in Turkey, showing lower mortality with high-dose vitamin C treatment, without statistical significance. The SOFA score was significantly better with treatment at day 4.
Authors incorrectly state that "HDVC treatment did not reduce the short-term mortality...". Mortality was lower with treatment, although not statistically significant given the sample size.
6g of vitamin C daily in 4 equal doses every 6h, for a total of 96h.
This is the 59th of 71 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000038 (1 in 26 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: very late stage, ICU patients.
risk of death, 25.4% lower, RR 0.75, p = 0.26, treatment 17 of 38 (44.7%), control 24 of 40 (60.0%), NNT 6.6.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 1.8% lower, RR 0.98, p = 1.00, treatment 28 of 38 (73.7%), control 30 of 40 (75.0%), NNT 76.
ICU time, no change, relative time 1.00, treatment 38, control 40.
relative SOFA score, 28.4% better, RR 0.72, p = 0.005, treatment 38, control 40, mean SOFA score, day 4.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Coskun et al., 21 Mar 2023, retrospective, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 1 author, study period March 2020 - June 2020, trial NCT04710329 (history). Contact:
This PaperVitamin CAll
The Effect of High-dose Vitamin C Treatment for Acute Respiratory Failure due to Coronavirus Disease Pneumonia on Mortality and Length of Intensive Care Stay: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Nurcan Coskun, Hacer Musta Altinay, Sebnem Turk, Nebia Peker, Serkan Islamoglu, Surhan Ayse, Melis Turkel Cinar, Ozkan, Etfal Sisli, Hospital, Sebnem Hacer, MD. Sisli Hamidiye Turk, Egitim Etfal, Arastirma Ve, Saglik Bilimleri Hastanesi, Universitesi, Türkiye İstanbul
SiSli Etfal Hastanesi Tip Bulteni / The Medical Bulletin of Sisli Hospital, doi:10.14744/semb.2022.66742
S evere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) causes tissue damage in the endothelium and epithelium, increasing vascular permeability and the risk of lung edema. The expressions of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor α are thought to induce an interstitial fibrosis in the lung by causing an abnormal increase (cytokine storm) in plasma levels. [1] [2] [3] When these pathogenic factors are taken into account, a table with high mortality from acute respiratory failure and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) emerges in patients with coronavirus disease (CO-VID-19) followed up in the intensive care unit (ICU). The low Objectives: In our study, we aimed to determine the effect of vitamin C on short-term mortality and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) followed up in the ICU. Methods: The patients who received and those who did not receive the high-dose intravenous vitamin C protocol were assigned to the treatment and control groups, respectively. The primary study findings in both groups were length of ICU stay and shortterm mortality, while the secondary findings were vasopressor and invasive mechanical ventilation requirements and change in sequential organ failure assessment score from the 0 to the 96th hour. Results: Thirty-eight patients were included in the treatment group and 40 were included in the control group. The mortality rates were 44% and 60% in the treatment and control groups, respectively; however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05). The median length of ICU stay in both groups was 10 days (p>0.05). No significant differences in the invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor requirements were found between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Consequently, the high-dose vitamin C therapy in the patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia did not reduce the length of ICU stay, mortality, and invasive mechanical ventilation and vasopressor reqirements.
Alhazzani, Møller, Arabi, Loeb, Gong, Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), Intensive Care Med, doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5
Beigmohammadi, Bitarafan, Hoseindokht, Abdollahi, Amoozadeh et al., Impact of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E supplementation on improvement and mortality rate in ICU patients with coronavirus-19: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-020-04547-0
Carcillo, Sward, Halstead, Telford, Jimenez-Bacardi et al., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network Investigators. A Systemic inflammation mortality risk assessment contingency table for severe sepsis, Pediatr Crit Care Med, doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000001029
Carsana, Sonzogni, Nasr, Rossi, Pellegrinelli et al., Pulmonary post-mortem findings in a series of COVID-19 cases from northern Italy: a two-centre descriptive study, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30434-5
Cathcart Rf 3rd, Vitamin C in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), Med Hypotheses, doi:10.1016/0306-9877(84)90149-X
Cheng, Li, Li, Liu, Yan et al., Ferritin in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a systematic review and metaanalysis, J Clin Lab Anal, doi:10.1002/jcla.23618
Chiscano-Camón, Ruiz-Rodriguez, Ruiz-Sanmartin, Roca, Ferrer, Vitamin C levels in patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, Crit Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-020-03249-y
Dohlen, Jones, Effect of vitamin C infusion on organ failure and biomarkers of inflammation and vascular injury in patients with sepsis and severe acute respiratory failure. The CITRIS-ALI randomized clinical trial, J Emerg Med, doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2020.01.026
Fowler Aa 3rd, Syed, Knowlson, Sculthorpe, Farthing et al., Medical Respiratory Intensive Care Unit Nursing. Phase I safety trial of intravenous ascorbic acid in patients with severe sepsis, J Transl Med, doi:10.1186/1479-5876-12-32
Fowler Aa 3rd, Truwit, Hite, Morris, Dewilde et al., Effect of vitamin C infusion on organ failure and biomarkers of inflammation and vascular injury in patients with sepsis and severe acute respiratory failure: the CITRIS-ALI randomized clinical trial, Erratum in, doi:10.1001/jama.2019.11825
Ginsburg, Klugman, COVID-19 pneumonia and the appropriate use of antibiotics, Lancet Glob Health, doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30444-7
Hemilä, Chalker, Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4
Hernández, Papadakos, Torres, González, Vives et al., Two known therapies could be useful as adjuvant therapy in critical patients infected by COVID-19, Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed), doi:10.1016/j.redar.2020.03.004
Hu, Han, Pei, Yin, Chen, Procalcitonin levels in COVID-19 patients, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106051
Hwang, Park, Jo, Kim, Chung et al., Society (KoSS) Investigators. Combination therapy of vitamin C and thiamine for septic shock in a multicentre, doubleblind, randomized, controlled study (ATESS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-019-3542-x
Kernan, Carcillo, Hyperferritinemia and inflammation, Int Immunol, doi:10.1093/intimm/dxx031
Kim, Jo, Eom, Mok, Kim et al., Combined vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine therapy for patients with severe pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit: propensity score-based analysis of a before-after cohort study, J Crit Care, doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.07.004
Kim, Kim, Na, Shin, A study of intravenous administration of vitamin C in the treatment of acute herpetic pain and postherpetic neuralgia, Ann Dermatol, doi:10.5021/ad.2016.28.6.677
Lansbury, Lim, Baskaran, Co, -infections in people with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis, J Infect, doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.05.046
Li, Evidence is stronger than you think: a meta-analysis of vitamin C use in patients with sepsis, Crit Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-018-2191-x
Marik, Khangoora, Rivera, Hooper, Catravas, Hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock: a retrospective before-after study, Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2016.11.036
May, Qu, Nazarewicz, Dikalov, Ascorbic acid efficiently enhances neuronal synthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine, Brain Res Bull, doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.09.009
Moskowitz, Huang, Hou, Gong, Doshi et al., Trial Investigators. Effect of ascorbic acid, corticosteroids, and thiamine on organ injury in septic shock: the ACTS randomized clinical trial, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.11946
Mrityunjaya, Pavithra, Neelam, Janhavi, Halami et al., Immune-boosting, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory food supplements targeting pathogenesis of COVID-19, Front Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.570122
Quartuccio, Semerano, Benucci, Boissier, Vita, Urgent avenues in the treatment of COVID-19: Targeting downstream inflammation to prevent catastrophic syndrome, Joint Bone Spine, doi:10.1016/j.jbspin.2020.03.011
Sağlık, Bakanlığı, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 Enfeksiyonu) Rehberi
Vincent, Moreno, Takala, Willatts, Mendonça et al., The SOFA (Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment) score to describe organ dysfunction/failure. On behalf of the Working Group on Sepsis-Related Problems of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Intensive Care Med, doi:10.1007/BF01709751
Wilson, Wynn, Pulmonary fibrosis: pathogenesis, etiology and regulation, Mucosal Immunol
Zabet, Mohammadi, Ramezani, Khalili, Effect of highdose Ascorbic acid on vasopressor's requirement in septic shock, J Res Pharm Pract, doi:10.4103/2279-042X.179569
{ 'indexed': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 12, 14]], 'date-time': '2022-12-14T06:19:13Z', 'timestamp': 1670998753119}, 'reference-count': 0, 'publisher': 'Kare Publishing', 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022]]}, 'DOI': '10.14744/semb.2022.66742', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 12, 13]], 'date-time': '2022-12-13T07:33:52Z', 'timestamp': 1670916832000}, 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'The Effect of High-dose Vitamin C Treatment for Acute Respiratory Failure due to Coronavirus ' 'Disease Pneumonia on Mortality and Length of Intensive Care Stay: A Retrospective Cohort Study', 'prefix': '10.14744', 'author': [{'given': 'Nurcan', 'family': 'Coskun', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '5966', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022]]}, 'container-title': 'SiSli Etfal Hastanesi Tip Bulteni / The Medical Bulletin of Sisli Hospital', 'original-title': [], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 12, 13]], 'date-time': '2022-12-13T07:33:57Z', 'timestamp': 1670916837000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': ''}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022]]}, 'references-count': 0, 'URL': '', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1302-7123'], 'subject': ['General Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'Sisli Etfal', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022]]}}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop