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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case, C 46% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case, C+D+zinc 97% Sharif et al. Vitamin C for COVID-19 Prophylaxis Favors vitamin C Favors control
Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study
Sharif et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14235029
Sharif et al., Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A.., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14235029
Nov 2022   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 962 COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh, showing significantly lower severity with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation, and improved results from the combination of all three.
risk of severe case, 46.0% lower, OR 0.54, p = 0.001, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of severe case, 97.0% lower, OR 0.03, p = 0.005, adjusted per study, combined use of vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sharif et al., 26 Nov 2022, retrospective, Bangladesh, peer-reviewed, 14 authors, study period 13 December, 2020 - 4 February, 2021.
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Abstract: nutrients Article Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study Nadim Sharif 1 , Rubayet Rayhan Opu 1 , Afsana Khan 2 , Khalid J. Alzahrani 3 , Hamsa Jameel Banjer 3 , Fuad M. Alzahrani 3 , Nusaira Haque 1 , Shahriar Khan 1 , Saimum Tahreef Soumik 1 , Ming Zhang 4 , Hanwen Huang 4 , Xiao Song 4 , Anowar Khasru Parvez 1 and Shuvra Kanti Dey 1, * 1 2 3 4 * Citation: Sharif, N.; Opu, R.R.; Khan, A.; Alzahrani, K.J.; Banjer, H.J.; Alzahrani, F.M.; Haque, N.; Khan, S.; Soumik, S.T.; Zhang, M.; et al. Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2022, 14, 5029. nu14235029 Academic Editor: Laura Di Renzo Received: 3 November 2022 Department of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh Department of Statistics, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh Department of Clinical Laboratories Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA Correspondence:; Tel./Fax: +880-1759588088 Abstract: Vitamin C, (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and zinc (zinc sulfate monohydrate) supplements are important in immunity against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, a limited number of studies have been conducted on the association of vitamins and supplements with the reduced risks of COVID-19 infection. This study aims to evaluate the association of vitamins and supplements as treatment options to reduce the severity of COVID-19. Data were collected from 962 participants from 13 December 2020 to 4 February 2021. The presence of COVID-19 was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The Chi-square test and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. The ratio of uptake of vitamin C:vitamin D:zinc was 1:1:0.95. Uptake of vitamin C, vitamin D and zinc were significantly associated with the reduced risk of infection and severity of COVID-19 (OR: 0.006 (95% CI: 0.03–0.11) (p = 0.004)) and (OR: 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01–0.22) (p = 0.005)). The tendency of taking supplements was associated with the presence of infection of COVID-19 (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.02), sex (p = 0.05) and residence (p = 0.04). The duration of supplementation and medication was significantly associated with reduced hospitalization (p = 0.0001). Vitamins C, D and zinc were not significantly (p = 0.9) associated with a reduced risk of severity when taken through the diet. Hospitalization (p = 0.000001) and access to health facilities (p = 0.0097) were significantly associated with the survival period of the participants. Participants with better access to health facilities recovered early (OR: 6.21, 95% CI 1.56–24.7). This study will add knowledge in the field of treatment of COVID-19 by using vitamins and zinc supplements. Accepted: 24 November 2022 Published: 26 November 2022 Keywords: vitamin C; vitamin D; zinc; COVID-19; treatment; Bangladesh Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license..
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