Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study
et al., Nutrients,
Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A..
, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14235029
Retrospective 962 COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh, showing significantly lower severity with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation, and improved results from the combination of all three.
risk of severe case, 46.0% lower, OR 0.54, p = 0.001, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of severe case, 97.0% lower, OR 0.03, p = 0.005, adjusted per study, combined use of vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sharif et al., 26 Nov 2022, retrospective, Bangladesh, peer-reviewed, 14 authors, study period 13 December, 2020 - 4 February, 2021.
Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis
among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh:
A Cross-Sectional Study
Nadim Sharif 1 , Rubayet Rayhan Opu 1 , Afsana Khan 2 , Khalid J. Alzahrani 3 , Hamsa Jameel Banjer 3 ,
Fuad M. Alzahrani 3 , Nusaira Haque 1 , Shahriar Khan 1 , Saimum Tahreef Soumik 1 , Ming Zhang 4 ,
Hanwen Huang 4 , Xiao Song 4 , Anowar Khasru Parvez 1 and Shuvra Kanti Dey 1, *
Citation: Sharif, N.; Opu, R.R.; Khan,
A.; Alzahrani, K.J.; Banjer, H.J.;
Alzahrani, F.M.; Haque, N.; Khan, S.;
Soumik, S.T.; Zhang, M.; et al. Impact
of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease
Prognosis among Patients with
COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A
Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2022,
14, 5029. https://doi.org/10.3390/
Academic Editor: Laura Di Renzo
Received: 3 November 2022
Department of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
Department of Statistics, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
Department of Clinical Laboratories Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University,
Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia,
Athens, GA 30602, USA
Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel./Fax: +880-1759588088
Abstract: Vitamin C, (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and zinc (zinc sulfate monohydrate)
supplements are important in immunity against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However,
a limited number of studies have been conducted on the association of vitamins and supplements
with the reduced risks of COVID-19 infection. This study aims to evaluate the association of vitamins
and supplements as treatment options to reduce the severity of COVID-19. Data were collected
from 962 participants from 13 December 2020 to 4 February 2021. The presence of COVID-19 was
confirmed by qRT-PCR. The Chi-square test and multivariate regression analyses were conducted.
The ratio of uptake of vitamin C:vitamin D:zinc was 1:1:0.95. Uptake of vitamin C, vitamin D and zinc
were significantly associated with the reduced risk of infection and severity of COVID-19 (OR: 0.006
(95% CI: 0.03–0.11) (p = 0.004)) and (OR: 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01–0.22) (p = 0.005)). The tendency of taking
supplements was associated with the presence of infection of COVID-19 (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.02), sex
(p = 0.05) and residence (p = 0.04). The duration of supplementation and medication was significantly
associated with reduced hospitalization (p = 0.0001). Vitamins C, D and zinc were not significantly
(p = 0.9) associated with a reduced risk of severity when taken through the diet. Hospitalization
(p = 0.000001) and access to health facilities (p = 0.0097) were significantly associated with the survival
period of the participants. Participants with better access to health facilities recovered early (OR: 6.21,
95% CI 1.56–24.7). This study will add knowledge in the field of treatment of COVID-19 by using
vitamins and zinc supplements.
Accepted: 24 November 2022
Published: 26 November 2022
Keywords: vitamin C; vitamin D; zinc; COVID-19; treatment; Bangladesh
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