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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 25% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case 17% Vitamin C for COVID-19  Nimer et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 2,148 patients in Jordan (March - July 2021) Lower hospitalization (p=0.08) and severe cases (p=0.18), not sig. c19early.org Nimer et al., Bosnian J. Basic Medical.., Feb 2022 Favors vitamin C Favors control

The impact of vitamin and mineral supplements usage prior to COVID-19 infection on disease severity and hospitalization

Nimer et al., Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.7009
Feb 2022  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing lower risk of severity and hospitalization with vitamin C prophylaxis, without statistical significance.
Although the 25% lower hospitalization is not statistically significant, it is consistent with the significant 19% lower hospitalization [6‑30%] from meta analysis of the 15 hospitalization results to date.
This is the 42nd of 70 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000087 (1 in 11 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
Study covers vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, aspirin, zinc, vitamin B9, vitamin B12, and selenium.
risk of hospitalization, 24.7% lower, RR 0.75, p = 0.08, treatment 52 of 651 (8.0%), control 167 of 1,497 (11.2%), NNT 32, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
risk of severe case, 17.0% lower, RR 0.83, p = 0.18, treatment 66 of 651 (10.1%), control 194 of 1,497 (13.0%), NNT 35, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Nimer et al., 28 Feb 2022, retrospective, Jordan, peer-reviewed, survey, 4 authors, study period March 2021 - July 2021. Contact: rmnimer@just.edu.jo.
This PaperVitamin CAll
The impact of vitamin and mineral supplements usage prior to COVID-19 infection on disease severity and hospitalization
PhD Refat Nimer, Omar Khabour, Samer Swedan, Hassan Kofahi
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.7009
The BJBMS publishes an "Advanced online" manuscript format as a free service to authors in order to expedite the dissemination of scientific findings to the research community as soon as possible after acceptance following peer review and corresponding modification (where appropriate). An "Advanced online" manuscript is published online prior to copyediting, formatting for publication and author proofing, but is nonetheless fully citable through its Digital Object Identifier (doi®). Nevertheless, this "Advanced online" version is NOT the final version of the manuscript. When the final version of this paper is published within a definitive issue of the journal with copyediting, full pagination, etc. the new final version will be accessible through the same doi and this "Advanced online" version of the paper will disappear.
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{ 'DOI': '10.17305/bjbms.2021.7009', 'ISSN': ['1840-4812', '1512-8601'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.7009', 'abstract': '<jats:p>The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health emergency. Nutritional status ' 'is suggested to be related to the severity of COVID-19 infection. Herein, we aimed to explore ' 'the impact of using vitamin and mineral supplements prior to COVID-19 infection on disease ' 'severity and hospitalization. In addition, the prior use of aspirin as an anticoagulant on ' 'the disease severity was investigated. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was ' 'conducted between March and July 2021. Recovered COVID-19 individuals (age ≥ 18 years, n = ' '2148) were recruited in the study. A multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate ' 'the associations of supplements and aspirin use with COVID-19 disease severity and ' 'hospitalization status. Among the participants, 12.1% reported symptoms consistent with ' 'severe COVID-19, and 10.2% were hospitalized due to COVID-19. After adjustment for ' 'confounding variables (age, gender, BMI, cigarette smoking status, and the number of ' 'comorbidities), the multivariate logistic regression model showed that the consumption of ' 'vitamin D supplements prior to COVID-19 infection was associated with a significant decrease ' 'in disease severity (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 - 0.92; P = 0.01), and a lower risk of ' 'hospitalization (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 - 0.89; P = 0.01). On the other hand, there were no ' 'significant differences in the frequencies of severe illness and hospitalizations with the ' 'consumption of vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B complex, vitamin C, zinc, iron, ' 'selenium, calcium, magnesium, omega 3, and aspirin before COVID-19 infection. Among the ' 'investigated nutrients, the use of vitamin D prior to COVID-19 infection was associated with ' 'reduced disease severity and hospitalization. However, more studies are required to confirm ' 'this finding.</jats:p>', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0545-3311', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Nimer', 'given': 'Refat', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3006-3104', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Khabour', 'given': 'Omar', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2847-9397', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Swedan', 'given': 'Samer', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4905-7492', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Kofahi', 'given': 'Hassan', 'sequence': 'additional'}], 'container-title': ['Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences'], 'content-domain': {'crossmark-restriction': False, 'domain': []}, 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 3, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-03-01T17:42:22Z', 'timestamp': 1646156542000}, 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 3, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-03-01T17:42:23Z', 'timestamp': 1646156543000}, 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100019004', 'award': ['20210173'], 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'name': 'Deanship of Research, Jordan University of Science and Technology'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 3, 1]], 'date-time': '2022-03-01T18:14:50Z', 'timestamp': 1646158490043}, 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'issn-type': [{'type': 'electronic', 'value': '1840-4812'}, {'type': 'print', 'value': '1512-8601'}], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 2, 28]]}, 'license': [ { 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0', 'content-version': 'unspecified', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 2, 28]], 'date-time': '2022-02-28T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1646006400000}}], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/download/7009/2462', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://www.bjbms.org/ojs/index.php/bjbms/article/download/7009/2462', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'member': '6922', 'original-title': [], 'prefix': '10.17305', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 2, 28]]}, 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 2, 28]]}, 'publisher': 'Association of Basic Medical Sciences of FBIH', 'reference-count': 0, 'references-count': 0, 'relation': {}, 'score': 1, 'short-container-title': ['Bosn J of Basic Med Sci'], 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': ['General Medicine'], 'subtitle': [], 'title': [ 'The impact of vitamin and mineral supplements usage prior to COVID-19 infection on disease ' 'severity and hospitalization'], 'type': 'journal-article'}
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