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Association of Vitamin D Status with COVID-19 Infection and Mortality in the Asia Pacific region: A Cross-Sectional Study

Yadav et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, doi:10.1007/s12291-020-00950-1
Feb 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in 37 Asia Pacific countries, finding a significant association with the number of cases/million (r =  −0.394, p = 0.016) and a weak association with the number of deaths/ million (r =  −0.280, p = 0.093).
Yadav et al., 3 Feb 2021, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Association of Vitamin D Status with COVID-19 Infection and Mortality in the Asia Pacific region: A Cross-Sectional Study
Dharmveer Yadav, Amandeep Birdi, Sojit Tomo, Jaykaran Charan, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Praveen Sharma
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, doi:10.1007/s12291-020-00950-1
has been declared a global pandemic by WHO on 11 March 2020. Still, very little is known about the potential protective dietary factors for the prevention of infection and mortality due to COVID-19. Keeping in view the scarcity of literature/studies available, in this regards present study was undertaken to assess if there is any correlation between mean levels of Vitamin D in various Asia Pacific countries with the infection and mortality caused by COVID-19. We collected data for mean levels of Vitamin D for 37 Asia Pacific countries for which we have also got the data regarding the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19. The mean levels of Vitamin D were found to have a significant association with the number of cases/million(r = -0.394, p value = 0.016) and a weak association with the number of deaths/ million (r = -0.280, p value = 0.093) due to COVID-19. In conclusion, we found a significant relationship between Vitamin D levels with the number of COVID-19 cases. So further clinical trial/study with a large sample size is needed to elucidate the protective role of Vitamin D in COVID-19.
References
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PLoS Pathog. 2010;6(11):e1001176.', 'volume': '6', 'year': '2010'}, { 'author': 'B Shams', 'first-page': '430', 'journal-title': 'Med J Islam Repub Iran', 'key': '950_CR23', 'unstructured': 'Shams B, Afshari E, Tajadini M, et al. The relationship of serum vitamin ' 'D and Zinc in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and ' 'adolescents: The CASPIAN-III study. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2016;30:430.', 'volume': '30', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s12011-020-02437-9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'key': '950_CR24', 'unstructured': 'Pal A, Squitti R, Picozza M, et al. Zinc and COVID-19: Basis of Current ' 'Clinical Trials.\xa0Biol Trace Elem Res. 2020. pp.1–11.'}, { 'author': 'H Yang', 'first-page': '1284', 'journal-title': 'Chin J Emerg Med', 'key': '950_CR25', 'unstructured': 'Yang H, Zhang J. Xu, Effect of Vitamin D on ACE2 and Vitamin D ' 'receptorexpression in rats with LPS-induced acute lung injury. Chin J ' 'Emerg Med. 2016;25:1284–9.', 'volume': '25', 'year': '2016'}, { 'author': 'A Fabbri', 'first-page': '4048', 'journal-title': 'Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci', 'key': '950_CR26', 'unstructured': 'Fabbri A, Infante M, Ricordi C. Editorial—Vitamin D status: a key ' 'modulator of innate immunity and natural defense from acute viral ' 'respiratory infections. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020;25:4048–52.', 'volume': '25', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cyto.2018.09.016', 'author': 'KC Olson', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '551', 'journal-title': 'Cytokine', 'key': '950_CR27', 'unstructured': 'Olson KC, Kulling Larkin PM, Signorelli R, Hamele CE, Olson TL, Conaway ' 'MR, et al. Vitamin D pathway activation selectively deactivates ' 'signaltransducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins and ' 'inflammatory cyto-kine production in natural killer leukemic large ' 'granular lymphocytes. Cytokine. 2018;111:551–62.', 'volume': '111', 'year': '2018'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12040988', 'author': 'WB Grant', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '988', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients', 'key': '950_CR28', 'unstructured': 'Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, Baggerly CA, French CB, Aliano JL, et ' 'al. Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of ' 'influ-enza and COVID-19 infections and deaths. Nutrients. 2020;12:988.', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8', 'author': 'P Ilie', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1195', 'issue': '7', 'journal-title': 'Aging Clin Exp Res', 'key': '950_CR29', 'unstructured': 'Ilie P, Stefanescu S, Smith L. The role of vitamin D in the prevention ' 'of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality. Aging Clin Exp Res. ' '2020;32(7):1195–8.', 'volume': '32', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/ajcn/77.1.204', 'author': 'RP Heaney', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '204', 'journal-title': 'Am J Clin Nutr', 'key': '950_CR30', 'unstructured': 'Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF, Barger-Lux MJ. Human serum ' '25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with ' 'cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:204–10.', 'volume': '77', 'year': '2003'}, { 'DOI': '10.4103/2230-8210.93773', 'author': 'D Maji', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '295', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Indian J Endocrinol Metab', 'key': '950_CR31', 'unstructured': 'Maji D. Vitamin D toxicity. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(2):295–6.', 'volume': '16', 'year': '2012'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/nutrit/nuaa081', 'author': 'F Hadizadeh', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Nutr Rev.', 'key': '950_CR32', 'unstructured': 'Hadizadeh F. Supplementation with vitamin D in the COVID-19 pandemic? ' '[published online ahead of print, 2020 Jul 17]. Nutr Rev. 2020. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa081.', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30268-0', 'author': 'AR Martineau', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '735', 'issue': '9', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol', 'key': '950_CR33', 'unstructured': 'Martineau AR, Forouhi NG. Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer? ' 'Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020;8(9):735–6.', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.4062/biomolther.2015.122', 'author': 'KY Lee', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '191', 'issue': '2', 'journal-title': 'Biomol Ther (Seoul)', 'key': '950_CR34', 'unstructured': 'Lee KY, Choi HS, Choi HS, et al. Quercetin directly interacts with ' 'vitamin D receptor (VDR): structural implication of VDR activation by ' 'quercetin. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2016;24(2):191–8.', 'volume': '24', 'year': '2016'}, { 'DOI': '10.1074/jbc.M111.244061', 'author': 'AA Hidalgo', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '36228', 'issue': '42', 'journal-title': 'J Biol Chem', 'key': '950_CR35', 'unstructured': 'Hidalgo AA, Deeb KK, Pike JW, Johnson CS, Trump DL. Dexamethasone ' 'enhances 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 effects by increasing vitamin D ' 'receptor transcription. J Biol Chem. 2011;286(42):36228–37.', 'volume': '286', 'year': '2011'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/biomedicines8050129', 'author': 'GV Glinsky', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '129', 'issue': '5', 'journal-title': 'Biomedicines', 'key': '950_CR36', 'unstructured': 'Glinsky GV. Tripartite combination of candidate pandemic mitigation ' 'agents: vitamin D, Quercetin, and Estradiol manifest properties of ' 'medicinal agents for targeted mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic ' 'defined by genomics-guided tracing of SARS-CoV-2 targets in human cells. ' 'Biomedicines. 2020;8(5):129.', 'volume': '8', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/ptr.6886', 'author': 'A Pawar', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Phytother Res.', 'key': '950_CR37', 'unstructured': 'Pawar A, Pal A. Molecular and functional resemblance of dexamethasone ' 'and quercetin: A paradigm worth exploring in dexamethasone-nonresponsive ' 'COVID-19 patients [published online ahead of print, 2020 Sep 30]. ' 'Phytother Res. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6886.', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s12291-020-00900-x', 'author': 'A Pal', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '274', 'issue': '3', 'journal-title': 'Indian J Clin Biochem', 'key': '950_CR38', 'unstructured': 'Pal A, Pawar A, Goswami K, Sharma P, Prasad R. Hydroxychloroquine and ' 'Covid-19: a cellular and molecular biology based update. Indian J Clin ' 'Biochem. 2020;35(3):274–84.', 'volume': '35', 'year': '2020'}, { 'key': '950_CR39', 'unstructured': 'A Study of Hydroxychloroquine, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and Zinc for the ' 'Prevention of COVID-19 Infection (HELPCOVID-19) NCT04335084.'}], 'reference-count': 39, 'references-count': 39, 'relation': {}, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12291-020-00950-1'}}, 'score': 1, 'short-title': [], 'source': 'Crossref', 'subject': [], 'subtitle': [], 'title': 'Association of Vitamin D Status with COVID-19 Infection and Mortality in the Asia Pacific ' 'region: A Cross-Sectional Study', 'type': 'journal-article', 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy', 'volume': '36'}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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