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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 94% Improvement Relative Risk COVID-19 or flu-like illness 81% Vitamin C for COVID-19  Margolin et al.  Prophylaxis Does vitamin C + combined treatments reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 113 patients in the USA Fewer cases with vitamin C + combined treatments (p=0.0032) Margolin et al., J. Evidence-Based Int.., Jul 2021 Favors vitamin C Favors control

20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment

Margolin et al., Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1177/2515690X211026193
Jul 2021  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
7th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000098 from 67 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 113 outpatients, 53 (patient choice) treated with zinc, quercetin, vitamin C/D/E, l-lysine, and quina, showing lower cases with treatment. Results are subject to selection bias and limited information on the groups is provided. See
Study covers vitamin C, vitamin D, quercetin, and zinc.
risk of case, 94.4% lower, RR 0.06, p = 0.003, treatment 0 of 53 (0.0%), control 9 of 60 (15.0%), NNT 6.7, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of COVID-19 or flu-like illness, 81.1% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.01, treatment 2 of 53 (3.8%), control 12 of 60 (20.0%), NNT 6.2.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Margolin et al., 6 Jul 2021, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 5 authors, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with zinc, quercetin, vitamin D/E, l-lysine, and quina) - results of individual treatments may vary.
This PaperVitamin CAll
20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment
MD, PhD Leon Margolin, PhD Jeremy Luchins, Daniel Margolin, Michelle Margolin, MSc Sanford Lefkowitz
Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1177/2515690x211026193
Objectives and Setting. As the lethal COVID-19 pandemic enters its second year, the need for effective modalities of alleviation remains urgent. This includes modalities that can readily be used by the public to reduce disease spread and severity. Such preventive measures and early-stage treatments may temper the immediacy of demand for advanced anti-COVID measures (drugs, antibodies, vaccines) and help relieve strain also on other health system resources. Design and Participants. We present results of a clinical study with a multi-component OTC "core formulation" regimen used in a multiply exposed adult population. Analysis of clinical outcome data from our sample of over 100 subjects À comprised of roughly equal sized regimen-compliant (test) and non-compliant (control) groups meeting equivalent inclusion criteria À demonstrates a strong statistical significance in favor of use of the core formulations. Results. While both groups were moderate in size, the difference between them in outcomes over the 20-week study period was large and stark: Just under 4% of the compliant test group presented flu-like symptoms, but none of the test group was COVID-positive; whereas 20% of the non-compliant control group presented flu-like symptoms, three-quarters of whom (15% overall of the control group) were COVID-positive. Conclusions. Offering a low cost, readily implemented anti-viral approach, the study regimen may serve, at the least, as a stopgap modality and, perhaps, as a useful tool in combatting the pandemic.
Authors' Note This article complies with CPMI guidelines. No PHI is included. Declaration of Conflicting Interests The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. ORCID iDs Leon Margolin, MD, PhD Jeremy Luchins, PhD
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