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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 89% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization >7 days 41% SOFA score @day 7 45% Beigmohammadi et al. IRCT20200319046819N1 Vitamin C RCT ICU Is very late treatment with vitamin C+vitamins A, B, D, E beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 60 patients in Iran (April - July 2020) Improved recovery with vitamin C+vitamins A, B, D, E (p=0.001) Beigmohammadi et al., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-021-05795-4 Favors vitamin C Favors control
The effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E on disease severity and inflammatory responses in patients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial
Beigmohammadi et al., The effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E on disease severity and inflammatory responses.., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-021-05795-4, IRCT20200319046819N1
Nov 2021   Source   PDF  
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Small RCT 60 ICU patients in Iran, 30 treated with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E, showing significant improvement in SOFA score and several inflammatory markers at day 7 with treatment.
5,000 IU vitamin A daily, 600,000 IU vitamin D once, 300 IU of vitamin E twice a day, 500 mg vitamin C four times a day, and one ampule daily of B vitamins [thiamine nitrate 3.1 mg, sodium riboflavin phosphate 4.9 mg (corresponding to vitamin B2 3.6 mg), nicotinamide 40 mg, pyridoxine hydrochloride 4.9 mg (corresponding to vitamin B6 4.0 mg), sodium pantothenate 16.5 mg (corresponding to pantothenic acid 15 mg), sodium ascorbate 113 mg (corresponding to vitamin C 100 mg), biotin 60 μg, folic acid 400 μg, and cyanocobalamin 5 μg]. []. This study is excluded in meta analysis: combined treatments may contribute more to the effect seen.
risk of death, 88.9% lower, RR 0.11, p = 0.11, treatment 0 of 30 (0.0%), control 4 of 30 (13.3%), NNT 7.5, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of hospitalization >7 days, 41.0% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.25, treatment 4 of 30 (13.3%), control 16 of 30 (53.3%), NNT 2.5, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
relative SOFA score @day 7, 45.5% better, RR 0.55, p < 0.001, treatment 30, control 30.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Beigmohammadi et al., 14 Nov 2021, Single Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, Iran, peer-reviewed, 6 authors, study period April 2020 - July 2020, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with vitamins A, B, D, E) - results of individual treatments may vary, trial IRCT20200319046819N1.
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This PaperVitamin CAll
Abstract: Beigmohammadi et al. Trials (2021) 22:802 RESEARCH Open Access The effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E on disease severity and inflammatory responses in patients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi1, Sama Bitarafan2,3* , Azin Hoseindokht1, Alireza Abdollahi4,5, Laya Amoozadeh1 and Danesh Soltani2 Abstract Background and objective: Because of the effect of vitamins on modulating the immune system function, we have evaluated the effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E in ICU-admitted patients with COVID19. Methods: This study was a randomized and single-blinded clinical trial in which 60 subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group (n=30) received vitamins, and the control group did not receive any vitamin or placebo. The intervention was included 25,000 IU daily of vitamins A, 600,000 IU once during the study of D, 300 IU twice daily of E, 500 mg four times daily of C, and one amp daily of B complex for 7 days. At baseline and after the 7-day intervention, the serum levels of inflammatory markers, vitamins, and the SOFA score were assessed. In addition, the mortality rate and duration of hospitalization were evaluated after the intervention (IRCT registration number: IRCT20200319046819N1/registration date: 2020-04-04, Results: Significant changes were detected in serum levels of vitamins (p < 0.001 for all vitamins), ESR (p < 0.001), CRP (p = 0.001), IL6 (p = 0.003), TNF-a (p = 0.001), and SOFA score (p < 0.001) after intervention compared with the control group. The effect of vitamins on the mortality rate was not statistically significant (p=0.112). The prolonged hospitalization rate to more than 7 days was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p=0.001). Regarding the effect size, there was a significant and inverse association between receiving the intervention and prolonged hospitalization (OR = 0.135, 95% CI 0.038–0.481; p=0.002); however, after adjusting for confounders, it was not significant (OR=0.402, 95% CI 0.086–1.883; p=0.247). * Correspondence: 2 Iranian Center of Neurological Research, Neuroscience Institute, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 3 FHMS Clinic, Burnaby Hospital, Neurology Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver..
Late treatment
is less effective
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