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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -77% unadjusted Improvement Relative Risk Acetaminophen  Sharif et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with acetaminophen beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 503 patients in Bangladesh (December 2020 - February 2021) Study underpowered to detect differences c19early.org Sharif et al., Nutrients, November 2022 Favors acetaminophen Favors control

Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study

Sharif et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14235029
Nov 2022  
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1st treatment shown to increase risk in November 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.00000029 from 28 studies, but still recommended in 46 countries.
* From meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh, showing higher mortality with acetaminophen use in unadjusted results.
Acetaminophen is also known as paracetamol, Tylenol, Panadol, Calpol, Tempra, Calprofen, Doliprane, Efferalgan, Grippostad C, Dolo, Acamol, Fevadol, Crocin, and Perfalgan.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
Study covers acetaminophen, vitamin C, zinc, and vitamin D.
risk of death, 77.0% higher, RR 1.77, p = 0.74, treatment 9 of 361 (2.5%), control 2 of 142 (1.4%), unadjusted, ACE.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sharif et al., 26 Nov 2022, retrospective, Bangladesh, peer-reviewed, 14 authors, study period 13 December, 2020 - 4 February, 2021.
This PaperAcetaminophenAll
Impact of Zinc, Vitamins C and D on Disease Prognosis among Patients with COVID-19 in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nadim Sharif, Rubayet Rayhan Opu, Afsana Khan, Khalid J Alzahrani, Hamsa Jameel Banjer, Fuad M Alzahrani, Nusaira Haque, Shahriar Khan, Saimum Tahreef Soumik, Ming Zhang, Hanwen Huang, Xiao Song, Anowar Khasru Parvez, Shuvra Kanti Dey
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14235029
Vitamin C, (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and zinc (zinc sulfate monohydrate) supplements are important in immunity against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, a limited number of studies have been conducted on the association of vitamins and supplements with the reduced risks of COVID-19 infection. This study aims to evaluate the association of vitamins and supplements as treatment options to reduce the severity of COVID-19. Data were collected from 962 participants from 13 December 2020 to 4 February 2021. The presence of COVID-19 was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The Chi-square test and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. The ratio of uptake of vitamin C:vitamin D:zinc was 1:1:0.95. Uptake of vitamin C, vitamin D and zinc were significantly associated with the reduced risk of infection and severity of COVID-19 (OR: 0.006 (95% CI: 0.03-0.11) (p = 0.004)) and (OR: 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01-0.22) (p = 0.005)). The tendency of taking supplements was associated with the presence of infection of COVID-19 (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.02), sex (p = 0.05) and residence (p = 0.04). The duration of supplementation and medication was significantly associated with reduced hospitalization (p = 0.0001). Vitamins C, D and zinc were not significantly (p = 0.9) associated with a reduced risk of severity when taken through the diet. Hospitalization (p = 0.000001) and access to health facilities (p = 0.0097) were significantly associated with the survival period of the participants. Participants with better access to health facilities recovered early (OR: 6.21, 95% CI 1.56-24.7). This study will add knowledge in the field of treatment of COVID-19 by using vitamins and zinc supplements.
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, N.S. and S.K.D.; methodology, N.S. and M.Z.; software, N.S. and M.Z.; validation, N.S., M.Z and S.K.D.; formal analysis, N.S., R.R.O., A.K., H.J.B., F.M.A., N.H., S.K., S.T.S., M.Z., H.H., X.S. and A.K.P.; investigation, N.S.; resources, A.K.P. and S.K.D.; data curation, R.R.O., N.H., S.K. and S.T.S.; writing-original draft preparation, N.S.; writing-review and editing, N.S., A.K., K.J.A., H.J.B., F.M.A., M.Z. and H.H.; visualization, N.S. and S.K.D; supervision,
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{ 'DOI': '10.3390/nu14235029', 'ISSN': ['2072-6643'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14235029', 'abstract': '<jats:p>Vitamin C, (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and zinc (zinc sulfate ' 'monohydrate) supplements are important in immunity against coronavirus disease-2019 ' '(COVID-19). However, a limited number of studies have been conducted on the association of ' 'vitamins and supplements with the reduced risks of COVID-19 infection. This study aims to ' 'evaluate the association of vitamins and supplements as treatment options to reduce the ' 'severity of COVID-19. Data were collected from 962 participants from 13 December 2020 to 4 ' 'February 2021. The presence of COVID-19 was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The Chi-square test and ' 'multivariate regression analyses were conducted. The ratio of uptake of vitamin C:vitamin ' 'D:zinc was 1:1:0.95. Uptake of vitamin C, vitamin D and zinc were significantly associated ' 'with the reduced risk of infection and severity of COVID-19 (OR: 0.006 (95% CI: 0.03–0.11) (p ' '= 0.004)) and (OR: 0.03 (95% CI: 0.01–0.22) (p = 0.005)). The tendency of taking supplements ' 'was associated with the presence of infection of COVID-19 (p = 0.001), age (p = 0.02), sex (p ' '= 0.05) and residence (p = 0.04). The duration of supplementation and medication was ' 'significantly associated with reduced hospitalization (p = 0.0001). Vitamins C, D and zinc ' 'were not significantly (p = 0.9) associated with a reduced risk of severity when taken ' 'through the diet. Hospitalization (p = 0.000001) and access to health facilities (p = 0.0097) ' 'were significantly associated with the survival period of the participants. Participants with ' 'better access to health facilities recovered early (OR: 6.21, 95% CI 1.56–24.7). 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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