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Safety of High-Dose Vitamin C in Non-Intensive Care Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: An Open-Label Clinical Study

Corrao et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm13133987, NCT04323514
Jul 2024  
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Mortality 39% Improvement Relative Risk Death/ICU 19% ICU admission -102% Hospitalization time 25% Vitamin C for COVID-19  Corrao et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with vitamin C beneficial for COVID-19? Prospective study of 146 patients in Italy Lower mortality (p=0.37) and death/ICU (p=0.24), not sig. Corrao et al., J. Clinical Medicine, Jul 2024 Favorsvitamin C Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now with p = 0.000000028 from 72 studies, recognized in 12 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 81 treatments.
Prospective study of 146 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing shorter hospitalization with high-dose intravenous vitamin C. 104 patients received 10g of vitamin C intravenously daily for 3 days and 42 patients received only standard care. Mortality was lower with treatment (8.7% vs 14.3%) without statistical significance. Treatment was associated with significantly shorter hospitalization in multivariable analysis (−4.95, p=0.041). No adverse events were reported in the vitamin C group.
This is the 72nd COVID-19 controlled study for vitamin C, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.000000028 (1 in 35 million).
21 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0012.
risk of death, 39.4% lower, RR 0.61, p = 0.37, treatment 9 of 104 (8.7%), control 6 of 42 (14.3%), NNT 18.
risk of death/ICU, 19.0% lower, OR 0.81, p = 0.24, treatment 104, control 42, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of ICU admission, 101.9% higher, RR 2.02, p = 0.51, treatment 10 of 104 (9.6%), control 2 of 42 (4.8%).
hospitalization time, 25.0% lower, relative time 0.75, p = 0.16, treatment 104, control 42.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Corrao et al., 8 Jul 2024, prospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, trial NCT04323514 (history).
This PaperVitamin CAll
Safety of High-Dose Vitamin C in Non-Intensive Care Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: An Open-Label Clinical Study
Kiriakos Karkoulias, Dimosthenis Lykouras, Salvatore Corrao, Massimo Raspanti, Federi Agugliaro, Francesco Gervasi, Francesca Di Bernardo, Giuseppe Natoli, Christiano Argano, Internal Medicine, Igr Covid-19 Investigators
Background: Vitamin C has been used as an antioxidant and has been proven effective in boosting immunity in different diseases, including coronavirus disease ). An increasing awareness was directed to the role of intravenous vitamin C in COVID-19. Methods: In this study, we aimed to assess the safety of high-dose intravenous vitamin C added to the conventional regimens for patients with different stages of COVID-19. An open-label clinical trial was conducted on patients with COVID-19. One hundred four patients underwent high-dose intravenous administration of vitamin C (in addition to conventional therapy), precisely 10 g in 250 cc of saline solution in slow infusion (60 drops/min) for three consecutive days. At the same time, 42 patients took the standardof-care therapy. Results: This study showed the safety of high-dose intravenous administration of vitamin C. No adverse reactions were found. When we evaluated the renal function indices and estimated the glomerular filtration rate (eGRF, calculated with the CKD-EPI Creatinine Equation) as the main side effect and contraindication related to chronic renal failure, no statistically significant differences between the two groups were found. High-dose vitamin C treatment was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality and admission to the intensive care unit, even if the result was bound to the statistical significance. On the contrary, age was independently associated with admission to the intensive care unit and in-hospital mortality as well as noninvasive ventilation (N.I.V.) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1. OR 7.50, OR 8.84, respectively). When considering the length of hospital stay, treatment with high-dose vitamin C predicts shorter hospitalization (OR -4.95 CI -0.21--9.69). Conclusions: Our findings showed that an intravenous high dose of vitamin C is configured as a safe and promising therapy for patients with moderate to severe COVID-19.
Institutional Review Board Statement: The Ethics Committee has approved the conduct of the study at our institution. The approval number assigned to this study is 3143-2020. Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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Late treatment
is less effective
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