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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Vitamin C Supplementation for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Olczak-Pruc et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14194217
Oct 2022  
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Mortality, RCTs 56% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, non-RCTs 21% Vitamin C  Olczak-Pruc et al.  META ANALYSIS c19early.org Favorsvitamin C Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now with p = 0.000000028 from 72 studies, recognized in 12 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Systematic review and meta analysis of 19 studies showing lower mortality with vitamin C treatment, statistically significant for RCTs but not for non-RCT studies, and longer ICU length of stay.
6 meta analyses show significant improvements with vitamin C for mortality1-4, progression5, severity1, and cases6.
Currently there are 72 vitamin C for COVID-19 studies, showing 19% lower mortality [10‑28%], 9% lower ventilation [-12‑27%], 14% lower ICU admission [2‑24%], 19% lower hospitalization [7‑30%], and 3% fewer cases [-16‑19%].
risk of death, 56.0% lower, RR 0.44, p = 0.004, RCTs.
risk of death, 21.0% lower, RR 0.79, p = 0.55, non-RCTs.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Olczak-Pruc et al., 10 Oct 2022, peer-reviewed, 8 authors. Contact: lukasz.szarpak@gmail.com (corresponding author), lukasz.szarpak@bcm.edu.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Vitamin C Supplementation for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Monika Olczak-Pruc, Damian Swieczkowski, Jerzy R Ladny, Michal Pruc, Raul Juarez-Vela, Zubaid Rafique, Frank W Peacock, Lukasz Szarpak
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14194217
Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), millions of people have died, and the medical system has faced significant difficulties. Our purpose was to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the effect of vitamin C on in-hospital mortality and the ICU or hospital length of stay for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included studies that evaluated the effect of vitamin C supplementation, compared with standard treatment in COVID-19 patients who are ≥18 y of age. Nineteen trials were included in the meta-analysis. In-hospital mortality with and without vitamin C supplementation was 24.1% vs. 33.9% (OR = 0.59; 95%CI: 0.37 to 0.95; p = 0.03), respectively. Sub-analysis showed that, in randomized clinical trials, in-hospital mortality varied and amounted to 23.9% vs. 35.8% (OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.25 to 0.76; p = 0.003), respectively. In the non-randomized trials, in-hospital mortality was 24.2% vs. 33.5% (OR = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.38 to 1.39; p = 0.33), respectively. The ICU length of stay was longer in patients treated with vitamin C vs. standard therapy, 11.1 (7.3) vs. 8.3 (4.7) days (MD = 1.91; 95%CI: 0.89 to 2.93; p < 0.001), respectively. Acute kidney injury in patients treated with and without vitamin C varied and amounted to 27.8% vs. 45.0% (OR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.40 to 0.78; p < 0.001), respectively. There were no differences in the frequency of other adverse events among patients' treatment with and without vitamin C (all p > 0.05). The use of vitamin C reduces hospital mortality. The length of stay in the ICU is longer among patients treated with vitamin C. In terms of patient safety, vitamin C has an acceptable profile. Low doses of vitamin C are effective and safe. Despite some evidence of the usefulness of vitamin C in modifying the course of COVID-19, it is too early to modify guidelines and recommendations. Further studies, in particular randomized clinical trials, are necessary.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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{ 'indexed': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 10, 11]], 'date-time': '2022-10-11T06:15:47Z', 'timestamp': 1665468947790}, 'reference-count': 64, 'publisher': 'MDPI AG', 'issue': '19', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 10, 10]], 'date-time': '2022-10-10T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1665360000000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'abstract': '<jats:p>Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the ' 'severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), millions of people have died, and the ' 'medical system has faced significant difficulties. Our purpose was to perform a meta-analysis ' 'to estimate the effect of vitamin C on in-hospital mortality and the ICU or hospital length ' 'of stay for patients diagnosed with COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review with ' 'meta-analysis in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Central ' 'Register of Controlled Trials. We included studies that evaluated the effect of vitamin C ' 'supplementation, compared with standard treatment in COVID-19 patients who are ≥18 y of age. ' 'Nineteen trials were included in the meta-analysis. In-hospital mortality with and without ' 'vitamin C supplementation was 24.1% vs. 33.9% (OR = 0.59; 95%CI: 0.37 to 0.95; p = 0.03), ' 'respectively. Sub-analysis showed that, in randomized clinical trials, in-hospital mortality ' 'varied and amounted to 23.9% vs. 35.8% (OR = 0.44; 95%CI: 0.25 to 0.76; p = 0.003), ' 'respectively. In the non-randomized trials, in-hospital mortality was 24.2% vs. 33.5% (OR = ' '0.72; 95%CI: 0.38 to 1.39; p = 0.33), respectively. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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